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Main Page - Marcus Martins / Minas Gerais / São Paulo / BRASIL - Portuguese


Align correctly the antenna / Beam Headings Antenas - DX - Radioamadorismo - Cabos Coaxiais                

               Enter here your Grid-Locator:   use 6 digits

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Locator Calculate (Grid-Locator) - authoring PP5VX 

If you are unsure, enter below the Latitude and Longitude to your QTH to calculate your locator (GRID-LOCATOR) - after entering press LOCATOR

Latitude (GMS)
Longitude (GMS)
IAR                 U GRID-LOCator =
                                                 GRID-LOCator with     digits


(The reproduction of the text below is authorized provided that the authorship is preserved and mentioned) - (All rights reserved-designed by PY4SM-PY2DD)

PLEASE NOTE: The antenna is the most important equipment of a radio station! 

An antenna is an electrical device that converts electrical energy into radio waves, and vice versa. It is generally used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver. In the transmission, a radio transmitter provides an oscillating electrical current in "radio frequency" (i.e. high frequency alternating current (AC) at the terminals of the antenna, and the antenna radiates the current energy of electromagnetic waves (waves radio). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the energy of an electromagnetic wave in order to produce a small voltage at its terminals, which is applied to a receiver to be amplified. An antenna (radiating system) is just an impedance transformer which couples the output of the transmitter with the impedance of space, known as "ether” which is 377 ohms.
The antennas are essential components of any radio equipment (radio, broadcast television, two-way radio communication receivers, and radar, cellular phones, and satellite communications) as well as other devices such as garage door openers, without microphones wireless, Bluetooth-enabled devices, wireless computer networks, baby monitors and RFID tags on merchandise. Usually an antenna consists of an array of metallic conductors (elements), electrically connected (often through a transmission line) to the receiver or transmitter. The antennas can be designed to transmit and receive radio waves in all directions equally (omnidirectional antenna), or preferably in a particular direction (directional). In the latter case, an antenna may also include additional elements or surfaces without electrical connection to the transmitter or receiver, such as parasitic elements, parabolic reflectors, to divert radio waves into a beam or other desired radiation pattern.
The first antennas were built in 1888 by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in his pioneering experiments to prove the existence of electromagnetic waves predicted by the theory of James
Clerk Maxwell. He published his work in Annalen der Physik und Chemie ( 36 vol . , 1889).

Many hams do not observe carefully the fact that the antenna is the most important equipment of any radio station and, although they have excellent equipment cannot good contacts nor good signal reports, it is the antenna that guarantees total irradiation transmitted signals.

Is always a doubt, even for the more experienced, decide which antenna will operate. We believe that the more simple and efficient is without doubt the Dipole antenna. More dipoles antennas used are the "1/2 wave", i.e. those which have half the length of the track on which we operate. For example, an antenna for the 80 meter band will have approximately 40 meters in total length. An antenna for 40 meters tera 20 meters long. Dipole antennas can also be fitted in the position of an inverted V. The way to calculate the Dipole is extremely simple:

     Antenna length = 142,5
                                  f (

If we want to build a dipole antenna for 40 meters band, we should define what is the frequency of "middle of the track". If the goal is to operate preferably in telegraphy (CW), the central frequency is 7,025 kHz, that's because the Telegraph range from 7,000 to 7,050 kHz. Just now replacing in formula (f = 7,025) and the result will be: 20.28 (twenty metres and thirty-six centimeters), i.e. 10.14 (ten meters and 14 inches) to each side of the antenna (leave about 10 inches, the more, in each side for easy adjustment.

DIPOLE and INVERTED V = > Calculate your antenna for frequencies below 30 MHz

Enter the desired Frequency: Khz (ex: 7.025 - Use the point) 

The total length of the DIPOLE will be meters.  Each side of the dipole is meters.

The total length of the INVERTED "V" will be meters.
Each side of the dipole en "V" inverted will be

Use common cable diameter 10, 12 or 14 AWG. Use good quality coaxial cable with impedance of 50 Ohm RG 58 type (fine) or RG-213 (thick) to feed the antenna (how many yards are needed to reach the transceiver). The time has come for adjustments that must be made with R.O.E meter (stationary were in), initially in the frequency of our example (7,025 Khz) where we should have the best income (falling gradually when we move away from 7,025 Khz, up or down). The adjustment should be made (if required) by reducing its length on both sides of 1 and 1 cm. Avoid cutting the cord, shorten the antenna and wrap the tips. After each reduction, make new measurement of R.O.E., (with a lot of patience) repeat as many times as you need, until the stationary were in reach at minimum. Need very careful not to turn on the transmitter when the cold stretch antenna being cut! Whenever possible, mount the antenna as high as possible in relation to the soil. Good QSOS and many DX 's.

  • With the adjusted antenna you can already check the conditions of propagation and, if desired, access the beacons - list to assess the performance of your antenna!

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    Build a broadband balun (shock type)

    See below how simple it is to build a balun using own coaxial cable that feeds the antenna. It must be installed as close to the antenna.


    The balun is formed by a coil which is made with the cable itself. Its diameter should be 10 cm for thin as RG58 cable 15 cm and for thick cables and RG213. For use in frequencies from 3.5 to 30 MHz, it only takes 10 turns.

    Here's how to solder the connector to the coaxial cable : click here

    Antenna portable / mobile 6 and 10 meters - Dual Band ( by VK5ZCB )

    This antenna was built using the "remnants" of an old vertical antenna 5/8 for the band of 2 meters. During the years 2013 and 2014 could use it getting great results. Simplicity and ease of construction: for example, coil L2 can be wound in a length of PVC 20mm.

    See below for all the details for its assembly:

    The length of the coaxial cable

    The importance of coaxial cable length is based on the concept that the resonant frequency in a transmission line when its length is a half - wave or multiple thereof, will be required to "deliver" the same impedance on both sides of this transmission line.

     storm_27.jpg (8285 bytes)      


    Among the precautions that you must take with the antennas, the measure of coaxial cables is one of the most important. Coaxial cables of descent of the antennas used by radio amateurs in their equipment, Transceivers must always be cut in frequently, so we guarantee a relationship of Wave Park (ROE) low in the equipment.

    cabocoaxial-4sm.jpg (6459 bytes)

    Adopt as a general rule the use of multiple of 1/2 wave (non-fractionated). The calculation to find the multiple of 1/2 wave for any frequency is as follows:

     antena1.jpg (3951 bytes)

                 Where:   Multiple multiple of 1/2 wave = Result in meters

                Speed of light = 300,000 Km/second

                 Frequency = frequency in Khz

                  Coaxial cable velocity factor (choose the corresponding factor):

           cabo-rfs.gif (2483 bytes) RG-58 e RG-213  =  0,67             rgc213.jpg (4349 bytes) RGC-213  =  0,82                        

    Calculation example: Let's say you go to install an antenna to the VHF 2 Meter band (144 to 148 MHz). Let's say that you need 20 feet of cable RGC 213-the radio antenna. The cable chosen was the RGC-213 because it is an excellent, low-loss cable. The speed factor of RF in cable RGC-213 is 0.82.

    The frequency that we use is 146,000 Khz

    Multiple 1/2 wave = (300,000/(2 x 146,000)) X 0.82

    Multiple 1/2 wave = 0.84 meters = (20 ft/0.84) = multiple 23.8

    How should not have multiple fractionated round to 23 or 24 multiple ... In our example we chose 24 multiple meaning a coaxial cable with multiple 24 x 0.84 m = 20.16 (twenty meters and sixteen centimeters) in length.

    Multiple of 1/2 Wave for each of the bands of operation

    Coaxial cable RG-58 e RG-231

    Coaxial cable RGC-231

    Operating range

    Multiple (in meters)

    Operating range

    Multiple (in meters)

    80 meters


    80 meters


    40 meters


    40 meters


    20 meters


    20 meters


    15 meters


    15 meters


    10 meters


    10 meters


    2 meters


    2 meters


    Note: for applications in HF multiband, where we have a variety of frequencies, we can still use a coupler to compensate possible rates of ROE.


    EXCELLENT-Vertical Antenna for 10 and 11 metres-500W

    Reduced dimensions and large antenna efficiency. The STORM is designed to work in any weather condition. To improve its functioning should be installed at highest point of your home, boat, car or truck.


    Specifiche Tecniche:

    • Vertical antenna-need ground plan
    • Rain resistant
    • No need to adjust for ROE.
    • Supplied complete with all necessary accessories
    • Black color

    Working frequency

    27 a 29 MHz

    Power applicable

    500 W

    Minimum ROE

    1 ,1:1


    0.9 dB

    Size (height)

    1000 mm

    Beware of Welding!

    All inevitably amateur ventures to make use of iron welds and use our known "welding wire" made ​​up of 60 % tin and 40 % lead.

    Great care is required in handling the "welding wire", which may cause poisoning due to lead can cause anemia, damage to the central and peripheral nervous system, the glands , kidneys, intestines and the circulatory system.

    Vapors and solder fumes can induce asthma or its aggravation. It is noteworthy that this toxic smoke may contain PVC due to the high temperatures of contact with the iron welds.

    Smell is the most reliable indicator of the existence of these smoke - who smells at the same time are inhaling the smoke.

    And how can we defend ourselves against the risks of welding?

    1 ) Every time , after welding and also prior to subsequent meals , we should wash their hands with abundant water;

    2 ) Always keep well ventilated places where we make welding;

    3 ) Maintain the lowest possible contact with the "wire welds" and the solder paste;

    4) Avoid inhalation of vapors and smoke materials, heated wires and components during soldering.

    Use the Antenna Tuner Kenwood AT- 250 with any Radio



    1) Localize o conector ACC na parte traseira do AT-250;

    2 ) Connect pin 3 to ground (watch the pin identification 3 - see drawing above)

    3) Connect the AT- 250 to your radio through the INPUT cable;

    4 ) Connect the antenna cable to the AT- 250 in ANT-1
    5 ) Place the RX switch to OUT;

    6 ) Finally connect the AT- 250 to the power outlet;


    Steps to tuning :

    a) Place the AT- 250 in POWER ON

    b) Place the AT- 250 TUNER ON

    c) Place the AT- 250 TUNE ON

    d) Place the AT- 250 ANTENNA in ANT-1

    e) Place the AT- 250 METER in SWR

    f) Place the AT- 250 BAND the desired range

    g) Turn on your radio and place it on AM or FM to tune

    h) Press the PTT and wait for the AT- 250 automatically tune

    i) Note that the stationary will lowering until the light turns off TUNE

    j) Operate your radio normally

    k) For new tune, repeat the above steps

    High-gain Loop antenna

    Many radio amateurs seek and find in your daily life, various designs of antennas. Some practices, others do not. Mostly all the antennas work, but unlike the manner for which they were designed. Loop antennas work basically like resonant magnetic fields that feed electrically our receivers. For diverse experiences, it is understood that the loops must cover perfectly the radio spectrum from very long Wave (VLF) to Tropical Waves.

    In order not to shoot down very technical segment, we propose here a loop antenna resonant high-gain, not only by the height of your frame, but because it is rotating through a single axle and also be mounted as vertical crosshead. This increases, and the sensitivity of its vertices and pretty, and very low noise levels, because the tangents of radio wave, usually horizontal, not reflected in their turns. The Assembly is self-explanatory, not fitting here too much details, but some considerations must be made:

    -Give preference to mount this antenna with wooden frame. An experimenter mounted system with PVC pipes and curiously the physical instability of the system showed signs of background noise. The balance of the system produces small variations of tension, which the receiver, it becomes noise;

    -Place the variable capacitor on the outside of the magnetic field, i.e. outside of the coil. The "Q" factor of windings in resonance with the variable is vastly more stable and electrically speaking, the antenna becomes resonant with much higher accuracy;

    -use a plastic button to operate in variable. The electric charge of our bodies makes the very sensitive variable, what instabiliza the antenna;

    -make sure that the shaft and rotating base support are free to rotate. If necessary, place a little oil between backups;

    Let's go to the Assembly:


    2 pieces of wood, cut to the extent of 61 cm long by 4 wide and 2 cm in height.

    1 variable capacitor of 1 or 2 sections, whose total capacity exceeds 420 PF. Experiences must be made with other variables.

    PS: miniature type capacitors, of American origin were tested, but not presented good yields.

    Wood for the base and a second piece, thinner, as swivel base

    1 potentiometer that will be broken, where will be used only the shaft and base

    4 small screws (2 mm)

    37.80 meters of enameled wire, copper or transformer winding, whose section is next to or greater than 1 mm.



    The Loop Antenna itself consists in mounting a cross with pieces of wood. The differential of this proposal is that at the base of the vertical frame, there will be a second base, transfixed by the potentiometer shaft, supported by a wooden base. Electrically, this antenna has 17 turns thirty, consuming 37.80 feet of wire on average. Full Coverage of track between 520 to 1710 Khz.

    The crosses have 61 cm long by 4 cm wide and 2 cm in height, can be cut directly into a lumberyard or home construction materials to, but if not possible, lower court measures are: 2 cm to the Center crease, which can be found through cross-cutting risks (see illustration). The spacing of the cuts of the adjacent Sciences is 29.5 cm. The depth is 2 cm, as the height (vertical thickness) of wood.







    The base of the antenna is composed of a piece of wood with at least 20x15 cm area, minimum to support the weight of the set. The height (thickness) of this wood should be about, it's possible to drill the base to secure the shaft of the potentiometer. In the same way that this axis must be drilled and screwed on this same basis.





    The winding must be initiated by the swivel base, where already will set the variable capacitor. will be made, 17 wire ties very well stowed, where to complete the 17 will be made another half, where in any of the points, this wire will be taken to the other end of the variable to facilitate the start of winding can be fixed together with the base of the variable and its end, after the soldier isolated polo.

    The final design was with 17 turns thirty, but there is a very important point to be seen during the entire Assembly: the real capacity of the variable.

    If there are too many turns, the resonance of the antenna won't get much more than 1500 Khz, and if there are turns of less, the antenna will cover after the 800 Khz, on average and follow until the 2100 Khz, which can be a prejudice only.

    To avoid this, do as was done in the prototype: wrap a few turns 19 (40 feet of wire) and several rolling out every 1/4 of the frame. Turn on and test. With the enclosed variable, you must tune in the beginning of the track and with him wide open, the end. To continue hitting, just go down the wire that the value will be found.

    In the final version, was installed a variable Douglas (Windsor, UK) with 2 interconnected sections, whose capacity should be next of the 680 pf, more or less. Experiences must be made with several variables and various sizes of wire. Always among the 17 and 19 turns.

    Rotating Base:

    The rotating base is an adaptation of a piece of wood no more than 10 mm thick for 35 in length which must be cut in the proportion of 2/3 of length for setting the variable capacitor and the support to the recipient. The holes of the bottom can be given in the graph. At this point, it is not crucial to the clearance of 2 mm between each coil. As the base, this factor does not interfere so fatally in the proper functioning of the system.

    During the winding of coils, variable shaft and screws should be placed in their holes, to prevent breaking the wire into your retrofitting. In the prototype, the variable shaft has 6 inches of length. To make the holes was used a drill for wood number 8. The screws have 2 mm thick by 115 mm overall length. A proportional view of bindings can be seen in the illustration:

    Partial view of a proposed location of the receiver after the Assembly. The variable and their bindings are on one side and the other, a base is placed to support the receiver.


    Many didn't realize how cold already set up this project and consider themselves happy with their results. In Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, it was possible to tune perfectly North and Northeast Brazilian broadcasters like Radio Sociedade of Bahia, Radio Pioneira of Teresina and many others. From the outside, was made very easily, the tune of Radio vision Cristiana of Turks and Caicos Islands in the Caribbean, National Radio of Spain, Madrid. A station not too rare but difficult to capture in the large centers was the radio Norway, broadcasting from Kvitsoy, 1,314 Khz whose tune was made at 23:40 hs of Brasília in the Aclimação district, Central/South region of São Paulo. Argentine, Uruguayan and Paraguayan stations became commonplace during the night.


    Referência Ohms Velocidade pF/m 30 MHz perdas dB 100 MHz perdas  dB 400 MHz perdas dB Diâmetro Dielétrico
    RG-5/U   52,5 0.66 93,5 6,20 8,8 19,4 8,4 PE
    RG-5B/U  50,0 0.66 96,8 6,20 7.9 19,4 8,4 PE
    RG-6A/U  75,0   67,0 6,20 8,9 19,4 8,4 PE
    RG-7/U 95,0   41,0   7,8 17,0    
    RG-8/U   50,0       5,0   6,3 13,8 10,3  
    RG-8/U 52,0 0.66 97,0 4,70 6,3 13,4 10,3 PE
    RG-8/U 50,0 0.80 83,3       10,3 PEF
    RG-8A/U 50,0 0.66 100,0 4,70 6,2 13,4 10,3 PE
    RG-8A/U 52,0 0.66 97,0   5,8 13,5    
    RG-8mini 80,0 0.67 80,0 0,98 3,3 7,5 6,1 PEF
    RG-8 XX 50,0 0.80   7,04     6,2 PEF
    RG-9/U  51,0 0.66 98,4 4,90 6,5 16,4 10,8 PE
    RG-9A/U  51,0 0.66 98,4 4,90 6,5 16,4 10,8 PE
    RG-9B/U  50,0  0.66 100,0 4,90 7,6 16,4 10,8 PE
    RG-10A/U 50,0 0.66 100,0 4,30 6,2 13,4 12,1 PE
    RG-11/U  75,0 0.66 67,2 5,30 7,5 15,8 10,3 PE
    RG-11/U 75,0 0.80 55,4       10,3 PEF
    RG-11A/U 75,0 0.66 67,5 4,00 7,5 15,7 10,3 PE
    RG-11A/U 75,0 0.66 68,0 4,00 7,5 15,7 10,3 PE
    RG-12/U    75,0 0.66 67,5 5,20 7,5 15,7 12,0 PE
    RG-12A/U  75,0 0.66 67,5 5,20 7,5 15,7 12,0 PE
    RG-13/U     74,0 0.66 67,5 5,30 7,6 15,8    
    RG-13A/U  75,0 0.66 67,5 5,20 7,5 15,7 10,8 PE
    RG-14A/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 3,30 4,6 10,2 13,8 PE
    RG-16/U     52,0 0.67 96,8   4,0   16,0  
    RG-17/U     52,0 0.66 96,7 2,03 3,1 7,9 22,1 PE
    RG-17A/U  52,0 0.66 98,4 2,03 3,1 7,9 22,1 PE
    RG-18/U     52,0 0.66 98,4 2,03 3,1 7,9 22,1 PE
    RG-18A/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 2,03 3,1 7,9 24,0 PE
    RG-19/U     52,0 0.66 100,0 1,59 2,3 6,1   PE
    RG-19A/U    50,0 0.66 100,0 1,50 2,3 6,1 28,4 PE
    RG-20/U     52,0 0.66 100,0 1,50 2,3 6,1 30,4 PE
    RG-20A/U     50,0 0.66 100,0 1,50 2,3 6,1 30,4 PE
    RG-21A/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 30,50 42,7 85,3 8,4 PE
    RG-29/U     53,5 0.66 93,5   14,4 31,5 4,7 PE
    RG-34A/U  75,0 0.66 67,2 2,79 4,6 10,9 16,0 PE
    RG-34B/U  75,0 0.66 67,0 2,79 4,6 10,9 16,0 PE
    RG-35A/U  75,0 0.66 67,3 1,90 2,8 6,4 24,0 PE
    RG-35B/U  75,0 0.66 67,0 1,90 2,8 6,4 24,0 PE
    RG-54A/U  58,0 0.66 87,0   10,5 22,3 6,4 PE
    RG-55/U    53,5 0.66 93,5 10,50 15,8 32,8 5,3 PE
    RG-55A/U  50,0 0.66 97,0 10,50 15,8 32,8 5,5 PE
    RG-55B/U     53,5 0.66 94,0 10,50 15,8 32,8 5,5 PE
    RG-58/U    50,0 0.66 95,0   16,1 39,5 5,0 PE
    RG-58/U      53,5 0.66 93,3   15,3 34,5 5,0 PE
    RG-58/U     75,0 0.79 55,5   15,1 34,5 6,2 PEF
    RG-58A/U  53,5 0.66 93,5 10,90 16,0 39,4 5,0 PE
    RG-58B/U  53,5 0.66 93,5   15,1 34,4 5,0 PE
    RG-58C/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 10,90 16,1 39,4 5,0 PE
    RG-58XX    50,0 0.80   6,60     6,2  
    RG-59/U     73,0 0.66 68,6 7,90 11,2 23,0 6,2 PE
    RG-59/U     75,0 0.79  55,5       6,2 PEF
    RG-59A/U    75,0 0.66 67,3 7,90 11,2 23,0 6,2 PE
    RG-59B/U  75,0 0.66 67,0 7,90 11,2 23,0 6,2 PE
    RG-62/U     93,0 0.84 44,3 5,70 8,9 17,4 6,2 PEA
    RG-62/U     95,0 0.79 44,0       6,2 PEF
    RG-62A/U  93,0 0.84 44,3 5,70 8,9 17,4 6,2 PEA
    RG-62B/U  93,0 0.86 46,0   9,5 20,3 6,2 PEA
    RG-63B/U  125,0 0.76 36,0   4,9 11,2 10,3 PE
    RG-67B/U  93,0 0.70           PE
    RG-71B/U  93,0 0.66 46,0 5,70 8,9 17,4 6,2 PEA
    RG-74A/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 3,30 4,6 10,2 15,7 PE
    RG-79B/U  125,0 0.74 36,0     16,0 11,5 PE
    RG-83/U     35,0 0.66 144,4   9,2   10,3 PE
    RG-84A/U  75,0              
    RG-112 /U 50,0 0.66 100,0     45,0 4,1 PE
    RG-114A/ 185,0 0.66 22,0     42,0 10,3 PE
    RG-122/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 14,80 23,0 54,2    
    RG-133A/U 95,0 0.66 53,0       10,3 PE
    RG-141/U    50,0 0.70 96,5   10,8 22,6 4,9 T
    RG-141A/U 50,0 0.69 96,5   10,8 22,6 4,9 T
    RG-142/U    50,0 0.70 96,5   12,8 26,3 5,3 T
    RG-142A/U 50,0 0.70 95,0 9,00 12,8 26,3 5,0 T
    RG-142B/U 50,0 0.70 96,5   12,8 26,3 5,0 T
    RG-164/U    75,0 0.66 67,0 2,00 2,8 6,4 22,1 PE
    RG-174/U    50,0 0.66 101,0 17,00 29,2 57,4 2,6 PE
    RG-174A/U 50,0 0.66 100,0 21,70 29,2 57,4 2,5 PE
    RG-177/U    50,0 0.66 100,0 2,03 3,1 7,9 22,7 PE
    RG-179B/U   75,0 0.70         2,5 T
    RG-180B/U   95,0 0.70         3,7 T
    RG-187A/U   75,0 0.70       52,5 2,8 T
    RG-188A/U   50,0 0.70 95,0 17,00 37,4 54,8 2,8 T
    RG-195A/U   95,0 0.70         3,9 T
    RG-196A/U   50,0 0.70 95,0 27,00 43,0 95,0 2,0 T
    RG-212/U    50,0 0.66  100,0 6,20 8,9 19,4 8,4 PE
    RG-213/U    50,0 0.66 97,0 3,20 6,3 13,5 10,3 PE
    RG-213/U    50,0 0.66 97,0 3,20 6,0 13,0 10,3 PE
    RG-213/U    50,0 0.66 101,0 3,20 7,0 13,5 10,3 PE
    RG-213/U    52,0 0.66 101,0 4,30 6,2 13,5 10,3 PE
    RG-213foam  50,0 0.772 73,0 1,95   11,6 10,3 PEF
    RG-213      50,0 0.66 101,0 2,45     10,3 PE
    RG-214/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 4,90 7,6 16,4 10,8 PE
    RG-214 US 50,0 0.66 101,0 3,20 5,7 13,0 2,1 PE
    RG-215/U  50,0 0.66 101,0 4,30 6,2 13,5 2,1 PE
    RG-216/U  75,0 0.66 67,0 5,30 7,6 15,8 10,8 PE
    RG-217/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 3,90 4,6 10,2 13,8 PE
    RG-218/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 2,03 3,1 7,9 22,1 PE
    RG-219/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 2,03 3,1 7,9   PE
    RG-220/U  50,0 0.66 96,8 1,50 2,3 6,1 28,5 PE
    RG-221/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 1,50 2,3 6,1 30,0 PE
    RG-222/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 30,50 42.7 85,3 5,5 PE
    RG-223/U  50,0 0.66 101,0 10,50 15,8 32,8 5,3 PE
    RG-224/U  50,0 0.66 100,0 3,30 4,6 10,2 15,6 PE
    RG-225/U  50,0              
    RG-302/U  75,0 0.70 69,0       5,2 T
    RG-303/U  50,0              
    RG-316/U  50,0 0.70 95,0 17,00 28,0   2,6 T
    RG-331/U   50,0 0.78            
    RG-332/U   50,0 0.78            
    RG-7612     25,0 0.696            
    Aircom +      50,0 0.84 84,0 1,80 3,3 7,4 10,3 PEA
    Aircell-7     50,0 0.83 74,0 3,70 6,9   7,3 PEA
    Bamboo 3   75,0 0.89     1,9   17,5 PEA
    Bamboo 6   75,0 0.88     3,7   10,5 PEA
    CAF1,1/5,3  75,0 0.82 54,0 2,90 5,3   7,4 PEF
    CAF1,6/7,3  75,0 0.82 54,0 2,10 3,9   9,8 PEF
    CAF1,9/8,8  75,0 0.82 54,0 1,70 3,2   11,3 PEF
    CAF2,5/11,4 75,0 0.82 54,0 1,40 2,6   13,9 PEF
    CAF3,7/17,3 75,0 0.82 54,0 0,91 1,7   20,3 PEF
    CF1/2"        50,0 0.82  82,0 1,28 2,4   16,0 PEF
    CF1/2"        60,0 0.82 68,0 5,80 3,1   16,0 PEF
    CF1/2"        75,0 0.82 54,0 4,90 2,6   16,0 PEF
    CF1/4"        50,0 0.82 82,0 2,40 4,5   10,0 PEF
    CF1/4"           60,0 0.82 68,0 2,30 4,3   10,0 PEF
    CF1/4"        75,0 0.82 54,0 2,30 4,3   10,0 PEF
    CF3/8"        50,0 0.82 82,0 1.9 3.5   12.1 PEF
    CF5/8"        75,0 0.82 54,0 1,00 1,9   19,6 PEF
    CF7/8"        50,0 0.82 81,0 0,71 1,4   28,0 PEF
    CF7/8"         60,0 0.82 68,0 0,69 1,3   28,0 PEF
    CF7/8"        75,0 0.82 54,0 0,69 1,3   28,0 PEF
    CT 50/20foam 50,0 0.80   2,33     10,3  
    CX2/6         50,0 0.63 97,0 2,80 5,3     PE
    CX4/12        50,0 0.63 97,0 1,52 2,9     PE
    HCF1/2        50,0 0.75 85,0 2,00 3,7   13,5 PEF
    Heliax 1/2 50,0 0.88 75,0 1,24     16,7  
    HFE1,5/6,5 60,0 0.66 84,0 3,50 6,6   8,8 PE
    H100          50,0 0.84 80,0 2,10   8,4 9,8 PEA
    H155          50,0 0.79 100,0 3,40 9,4   5,4 PEF
    H500          50,0 0.81 82,0 4,10 8,7 9,8 7,0 PEF
    H1000        50,0 0.83         10,3  
    H2000        50,0 0.80 81,6 2,20     10,3 PEF
    LCF1/2"     50,0 0.87 76,0 1,23 2.3   16,0 PEF
    LCF7/8      50,0 0.87 76,0 0,66 1,3   28,0 PEF
    LDF4/50A 50,0 0.88 77,1     5,0 16,0  
    3/8"         50,0 0.79     3,9 8,1 10,3  
    TU-165    50,0 0.70 95,0     41,0 2,2 T
    TU-300    50,0 0.70 95,0     25,0 3,6 T
    TU-545    50,0 0.70 95,0     14,0 6,4 T

     Approximate loss in decibels per meter coaxial cable (cable quality can change the values)



    External diameter


































    Belden 9913 




     ligne(1).gif (11170 bytes)ligne(1).gif (11170 bytes)



    The G5RV is today a very popular dish in the HF bands. Despite widespread use in these tracks, there are some myths and erroneos concepts relating to her. This seems to be a part of your own existence. To light the text "Antenna Compendium, Volume 1, I would like to clarify a few topics about this versatile antenna, tipping, even some myths erroneously created.

    Starting let's hear Louis, G5RV, (the AUTHOR of the project) of West Sussex, England, recently deceased with 90 years of age: "the G5RV antenna, with its arrangement of special food, is a multiband antenna fed in the central part, and can operate efficiently in HF, 3.5 to 28 MHz. Its dimensions are specifically designed to operate in areas of limited space (inverted V)but you can "stretch" for reasonably priced 31 metres when fully operated stretched. Additionally, Louis States that, "Unlike multiband antennas, in General, the G5RV drawn in full length version was not designed as a half-wave dipole on frequency lower power operation, but rather as a long-wire with 3/2 wave fed in downtown 14 MHz, where the 10.36 m of open line work as an impedance transformer 1 : 1. This causes the feed, with open lines of 75 Ohm coaxial cables or 50/75 Ohms can lead us to a perfect food in this band, with a consequent very low SWR.

    However, in all other HF bands, this section the marrying kind serves as a makeup, accommodating part of stationary were (components of current and voltage), which, in certain instances, operating frequency cannot be completely accommodated in version fully stretched or even V-inverted. The frequency of the central design of the full-sized version is 14.15 Mhz. and the dimension of 31.27 is derived from mathematical expression for the calculation of long-wire antennas, that is:

    LENGTH = 149,95(n -0 ,05)/f(MHz)

                             = (149,95 x 2,95)/14,15

                             = 31,27 m

    where n = the number of half wavelengths of wire (stretched version)

    Considering that the entire system will be taken to the resonance frequency by use of an antenna coupler, in practice, the antenna is cut with 31 metres. As the antenna does not makes use of "traps" or the dipole part of the ferrites, same becomes progressively more long (electrically) with increasing frequency. This effect gives certain advantages over the use of "traps" or because the ferrites, addition of electrical length, the largest blood cells wool vertical polar diagram component tend to decrease as the frequency rises. Thus, from 14 Mhz upwards, good part of the energy radiated in the vertical plane is made interesting angles on DX.

    In addition, changes of polar diagram with increasing frequently tend to a half-wave dipole typical in 3.5 MHz,a two-phase half-wave on 7 and 10 MHz and for a long-pattern wire in 14, 18, 21, 24 and 28 MHz. Although the perfect impedance adjustment with open line 75 ohm or 75 Ohm coaxial at the entrance to the section the perfect fit is good at 14 MHz, and may also result in an SWR of 1: 1.8, with 50 Ohm coaxial cable, in this band, the use of a coupler of impedance instances is required in all other bands, because the antenna over the section of perfect fit had a reactive load to feeder, in these other tracks. Thus, the use of the correct impedance adjuster type instances is essential in order to ensure the transfer of maximum power to the antenna, from a typical transceiver that has impedance of 50 ohms (unbalanced) output. Where as the modern transceivers use protection against high SWR, starting his action from relations of 2: 1, the coupler will help, too, to release all its power. Most of these transceivers already possess internally, these automatic couplers, that lend themselves perfectly for this purpose.


    Here follows the general theory of operation. As I cannot attach the file transmission diagrams, I follow the text of the ARRL "Antenna Compendium, Volume 1, which is an excellent literature for the fans of antennas (THIS is NOT an ADVERTISEMENT, JUST a NOTE to the ...) Remember that these information are part of the theory and the operation itself will depend upon the installation height over the ground, metal restraints, power lines, trees, etc.

    3.5 MHz

    In this range, the antenna acts as a half-wave dipole type shortened, with roughly 5.18 m. total length. The remainder of section of impedance matching instance introduces a reactance inevitable for the antenna, from the point of feed and feed the antenna diagram is effectively equal to a half-wave dipole in this band.

    7 Mhz

    The total length, plus the 4.87 m adapter section transform G5RV in a collinear with 2-phase half-wave, partially folded up. The diagram of antenna irradiation is higher now than a dipole because of its characteristics of collinear. The coupling is slightly degraded due to inevitable reactance level, introduced by the extra length in the adapter section. This reactance can easily be eliminated with an antenna tuner (ATU).

    10 MHz

    In this range, the antenna works like a collinear 2 half-wave. Is very effective, but the reactance presented to the point of food requires a good antenna tuner (ATU). The diagram of irradiation is basically identical to the standard 7 MHz.

    14 MHZ

    This track is where the G5RV really shines. The antenna is operating as an antenna 3/2 wavelength, fueled by the Center with a diagram of irradiation with many wool blood cells, low irradiation angle, around 14 degrees of elevation, which is very efficient for DX, the most popular of the DX bands. The antenna features a load resistance of 90 ohms, basically not showing reactance. The feed with 50 ohm coax cable will introduce a SWR of 1.8: 1, easily engaged by an antenna tuner.

    18 MHz

    The antenna works as 2 full waves in phase, by combining a lower angle of irradiation with high bandwidth of a collinear. The load is high impedance, with fairly low reactance.

    21 MHz

    In this range, the antenna works as a long-wire with 5/2 wavelength, fueled by the Centre. This leads to many wool blood cells, low angle of radiation with high impedance load resistive instance. When properly attuned to the ATU, becomes a highly effective antenna for Dx 's.

    24 MHz

    The antenna works, again, as a long-wire with 5/2 waves, but due to the reversal in the direction of the current, the load is resistive, approximately equal to load on 14 MHz. Again, the diagram of irradiation is composed of many blood cells, wool with low irradiation angle.

    28 MHz

    In this band, the antenna works as a long-wire, 3 wavelengths, Center-fed. The diagram of irradiation is similar to 21 or 24 MHZ, but with some advantage, due to the effect of collinear obtained by power of two 3/2 wave antennas in phase. The load is high impedance, with low reactance. In part 3, it will be discussed the construction of the G5RV.

    Are specified the dimensions of the G5RV fully extended in part 1. The antenna does not need to be necessarily fully extended, but can be installed as a V-inverted. The center of the antenna should be as high as possible, obviously, and the adapter section should get off at right angle to the antenna. It is recommended that the lower section used for the antenna is copper wire of 2.5 mm², although there are antennas constructed with copper wire 1.5 mm² that are operating very well. If the antenna is mounted as V-inverted, the highest angle (inclusive) must not be less than 120 degrees.


    It is recommended that the section's adapter built feeder line open, for minimum loss, because it always will in presence of SWR. Faced with the constant presence of stationary were waves, the impedance of the same is not important. A technique of building satisfying memory to the adapter section of line open would make their own acrylic separators, plastic or similar, with low-loss dieletrico. Plastic strips would be cut approximately 5 inches long and 12 mm. wide, notched to fit the threads of 2.5 mm². Pierce the ends of the tabs in a distance of 1 cm from each end, to then be able to tie the wires in your position the spacers should be mounted to each 30 inches.

    Another way to do the adapter section would be using tapes to feed the TV antenna, industrial-grade (not manufactured in Brazil ...) of 300 or 450 ohms, whose section of the wires is, at minimum, AWG20 to AWG16. Open Windows on the plastic part, avoiding the tapes if twist am, by occasion of strong winds. Lastly, and less desirable, (although work), is the commercial television tape. The main disadvantage of this type is the durability. Drivers of this tape are typically in diameter 22 to 28, and the quality of the plastic used for the isolation is very low, deteriorating more quickly in the Sun and rain. The biggest advantage is that is readily available in electronic stores, grocery and hardware store. The quality is proportional to the price, if several types are available. Do not use the "heavy" type (2 isolations), because the additional protection is not achieved the desired result, especially in 3.5 or 7 MHz.


    The length of the adapter section is half-wave ELECTRICAL OUTLET on 14 MHz. the physical length to use is determined by the following formula:

    L = (149,95 x FV)/f(MHz)

    where FV is the speed factor of the adapter section. The result is obtained in meters.

    The speed factor is determined by the type of line and dielectrics properties of their isolation. For the three types of line discussed above, the FV (speed factor) is:







    Replacing the FV on formula and calculate to a frequency of 14.15 MHz, you Gets the following lengths for the impedance adapter instances.


                10,28 m


                  9,53 m


                  8,69 m

    The impedance adapter instances is connected to the center of the antenna, and descend vertically at least 6 meters or more, if possible. From there, he can be tied or folded, connecting to the same coaxial cable, taking until the antenna coupler or straight to the equipment if the even own internal Coupler.


    In the original article that described the G5RV antenna, published in "RSGB BULLETIN", November 1966, it was suggested that, if a coaxial cable was used to feed the antenna, a balun could be employed to do the required balancing, right at the base of the adapter section. However, more recent experiences and a better understanding of the theory of operation of baluns indicated that such a device was inadequate due to high load reatance, presented at the base of the adapter section. Consequently, We Dont USE A BALUN On G5RV.

    If a balun is connected to a line with SWR not less than 2:1, their internal increase losses. the result of this is the heating of ferrite Toroid, with eventually ¼ ente saturation. Operating saturated, the Toroid can distort the RF waves, generating harmonic, and, in extreme cases, with high power, literally destroy the Toroid. An antenna tuner may quietly accommodate variable loads, cancelling the reatance present, reducing the energy of harmonic gifts, which, by the nature of multiband G5RV, could be irradiated. Generally speaking, the existing equipment in modern couplers engage easily all the bands of the G5RV, with exception of 10 Mhz.


    Doug DeMaw, W1FB, W1FB's ANTENNA BOOK "of his own, puts the G5RV can be fed with open line, straight to the ATU. If this is done, the antenna will load on all tracks without problems. In this case, the ATU should have an exit to open line, in such a way that make the wedding in all bands. This would assist in operations, laptops where the operator could use an open line and a small tuner designed for this kind of lines, carrying on all HF bands. is an intelligent solution, that would decrease the weight of equipment to be transported in operations laptops. An interesting open line length would be 21.9 metres, allowing whole antenna and the open line were wrapped in a small bucket or spool empty thread, making it easier to transport.

    Finally, if you need a good multiband antenna and discrete for your station, give a chance to the G5RV.


    Using the G5RV 160-10 meters as V-Inverted

    The G5RV 160-10 meters, which is a double G5RV (G5RV) x 2, may be used with better performance at the end of the HF spectrum, configuring it as a V-inverted. Electrically, the (G5RV) x 2 is a dipole with 3/2 wave dipole 40 meters, or wave 0.75 per side. In this configuration, it will be bi-directional sharper qualities, with wool directional blood cells more pronounced. To use a V-Inverted as a multiband HF antenna, the user should design it to the middle of the desired range. For example, if you want to use it from 20 to 10 feet, then the angle of pice is computed for the 15-meter band. Using this logic, the length of each side is 2.25 wavelengths, requiring an angle included around 70 degrees.

    Using an angle of 70 degrees, will result in an antenna supported by top with two side Joiners, forming a triangle of 3 equal sides (not the Rectangle) with "legs" of 3 supports, forming a triangle, with sides of 31.1 metres and base of 50.9 metres. Is a large triangle with height (highest point) of 17.83 metres. The directivity is along the plane formed by the sides and height, being bi-directional. Approximate gain, is shown in the table below, where they are tabulated winnings for top bands from HF.



    (wave length)

    GAIN dBd






















    This table of winnings is optimistic, based on the angle of the pice is correct for the given side length, which does not occur in practice. The gain will be closer on the 15-meter band, being in the band of 40 m the least approximate, but at most 1 dBd of difference. the values of this table are approaching very a small gain directional antenna and the opening angle could cover, with all certainty, the Brazil, from North to South. (if mounted in direction East-West).


    Multiband G5RV antenna is a very popular project in the HF bands. The most popular of them is configured as a 3/2 wave dipole on 20 meters, and works as both a shortened dipole or a long-wire fed as collinear, in other bands. In this configuration, the total length is 31.1 meters, with an adapter section ranging from 8.53 m to 10.36 m. in some cases, it may be too long to adapt is their land and are not all that can convince your neighbors to accept one of his "legs" on your property. In these cases, a version equivalent to half of the previous one, covering 7 to 28 MHz can be used. The reciprocal is true: some amateurs would operate at 1.8 MHz, living on land that accommodate the 62.18 meters required for this version of the G5RV. Here are some dimensions already calculated, which may be useful:

    BAND    (MHZ)

        1.8 - 28

         3.5 - 28

       7.0 – 28


       62,18 m

       31,1 m

      15,54 m






      20,56 m

      10,28 m

    5,14 m


      19,06 m

        9,53 m

    4,76 m


      17,38 m

        8,69 m

    4,34 m

    INDUSTRIAL TV TAPE is not found in Brazil. If adopted the option NORMAL TV TAPE (300 OHM TV Ribbon) search for material of good quality. Preferably adopting the first option, which although a little more cumbersome, presents great results, especially when working with higher powers (above 200 watts).

    The aforementioned antennas working in 6 meters, often without the aid of antenna tuner!

    The antennas listed above, there is a note made by Louis, G5RV, in his article on "ARRL ANTENNA COMPENDIUM, Volume 1, on the version 7-28 Mhz: it refers to the city of Evhan, residence of WB2ELB, which supplies it with a single line, directly built-in coupler your Kenwood and other amateur radio sites, using the 3.5 version-28 Mhzunder the same conditions.

    You can build the power line the open line type in many ways. I suggest, personally, that you can use the celeron processor as an insulator, because in addition to their excellent mechanical rigidity has dieletric very good and great durability, even exposed to lightning storms. I've been using the same, in some antennas, for years, without any kind of problems. In case of any doubt, please contact us.

      Build a filter and avoid interference in Televisions references (TVI)

    Schema for the construction of a simple but effective filter that effectively help to suppress the interference of RF armonics in television receivers.

    The reproduction of the text above is authorized as long as the authorship is preserved and mentioned - All rights reserved designed by PY4SM - PY2DD

    barrahoriz.gif (4372 bytes)barrahoriz.gif (4372 bytes)


    Antenna Basics and Theory -- WOW -- See this One -- From Navy Training Series
    Antenna Basics and Theory -- From Ian C. Purdie, VK2TIP
    Antenna Basics and Theory -- Excellent Tutorial From Scott's Pages
    Antenna Basics and Theory -- Excellent From Integrated Publishing
    Antenna Tutorial -- From AeroCom
    Antenna Basic Radiation Theory-- From The ARRL
    Antenna Basics and Theory -- Excellent - From VK2DQ
    Antenna Construction Tips -- Metals to use. From Bob Hejl - W2IK
    Antenna Design Information & Software -- From S-Meter.Net
    Antenna Dimension Calculators -- From The Antenna Elmer - Click On Antenna Type
    Antenna Dimensions Calculator-- Dipoles From AMANDX
    Antenna Dimensions Calculator - Dipoles From KWARC
    Antenna Height? -- How High Should They Be? -- By Mike Banz, AA3RL
    Antenna Tuner Theory -- From The ARRL
    Antenna Tuners and SWR -- From The ARRL
    Antenna Tuners - How to use
    Baluns What Do They Do -- From W7EL
    -- IZ7ATH
    Baluns and Choke Baluns -- From Ian C. Purdie, VK2TIP
    Baluns - W8JI Antenna Articles Toroid Balun Winding * Balun and Transformer Core Selection * Transmitting Baluns
    Choosing Wire For An Antenna
    Coaxial Cable Trap Building -- BY Greg Ordy W8WWV
    Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas - By Sophocles J. Orfanidis - Lots Of Math! MATLAB library of same
    Feed-Lines & Impedance Matching - From "Your Remote S-Meter" Pages
    Ground & Radial Systems
    -- From Butternut
    Ground and Radial Systems -- From SteppIR Antennas
    Ground Characteristics, Lightning Protection Grounds, Radio Frequency Grounds, and Practical Grounding Systems
    Ground Systems -- From W8JI

    Height Of Dipoles - Patterns By AA3RL
    Lightning Protection -- Four Articles
    Loaded Antennas
    - From Tom W8JI
    Noise -- Technical article about noise and receiving/ receiving antennas From Tom W8JI
    QuarterWave Antenna installation notes -- includes ground/raised radial info -- From Butternut
    Radials and Ground Systems -- From Butternut
    Radials and Ground Systems -- From SteppIR

    Radiation And Fields
    -- From Tom W8JI
    Radiation Resistance -- From Tom W8JI
    Slingshot method for hanging SkyWires
    Stacking Yagi Antennas
    -- From the ARRL
    Stacking Yagis -- Same band and different bands -- From G3SEK
    Stacking Yagis -- From Grantronics
    Stacking Yagis - From Astron Wireless
    Transmission lines, coax, swr, waveguides -- loaded with info. From AllAboutCircuits
    Traps -- Excellent From Tom W8JI
    Tuner, Antenna - How to use. Also shows basic station interconnections - From

    Vertical Antennas
    - Dirty Little Secrets, Ground/Radial Systems - Click On Tech Notes
    Vertical Antenna Design -- Trap and Loading Coil Losses With Vertical Antennas By W0DN
    The Effects of VSWR on Transmitted Power
    --By James G. Lee, W6VAT
    Simple Z Match Tuner - Via Lloyd Butler VK5BR

    The Antenna Elmer By AC3L & N3LSS

    The DxZone has nearly 600 Antenna Articles
    ARRL Antenna Projects Web Page -- Includes Beams/Yagis, Dipoles, J-Poles, Quads, Slopers, Verticals, Other HF Antennas, VHF Antennas

    Antennas A Bunch -- From Ham Radio Spectrum

    Dr. Ace's Antennas -- From WH2T -- Inverted L, Mini Super Loop, Full Wave Loop, Double Bazooka Coaxial Dipole, Homebrew 4:1 Balun

    Practical Antenna Notes -- Loaded with ideas -- dB, dBi, and dBd, -- Invisible and Hidden Antennas -- About SWR

    Antenna Application Notes -- Antenna and Feedline Measurements, Return Loss Bridge Basics, Duplexer Tuning using Bridge

    Antenna Design and Software From G4FGQ -- Loaded -- many antenna design programs, coax rating, ferrites and toroids, Groundwave propagation

    N4UJW Antenna Design Lab --- Loaded

    N0LX Antenna Page - Lots of Mobile Antennas

    W8JI Antenna Articles -- Receiving * Crossfire Phasing * Transmitting * Combiner and Splitters * Toroid Balun Winding * Balun and Transfomer

    Massive Antenna Page -- From "Your Remote S-Meter" Pages

    AM Loop Antennas
    Antennas from QRZ Shareware -- over 40 antenna files
    ARRL Antenna Projects Loaded With Many Antenna Projects
    AA3PX Antenna Page -- Conversations with Dr. Harold H. Beverage
    Antenna Analyzers -- Manufacturers
    Antenna Discussions -- Lots Of Antenna Info From the CQ Contest Archives
    Antenna Discussions -- Tons of Antenna & Tower Info From the Tower Talk Archives
    Antennas for Portable Use
    -- Comparisons
    Antenna Height? -- How High Should They Be? -- By Mike Banz, AA3RL
    Antenna Projects From The YCCC -- Double-L For 80/160, Two Wire Beverage,160 Meter 4-Square, Using a 4 square Vertical
    Antenna System Evaluator
    -- From KD6DKS
    Antennex -- The Ham Antenna Magazine -- all about antennas -- on line
    All-band Wire Antenna - From Joe Tyburczy, WB1GFH

    BackPack Antennas
    -- From HFpack, The HF Portable Group.
    Balloon and Kite Antennas On The Top Band -- From G4VGO
    Balloon Antennas -- From HCDX
    Baluns From IZ7ATH
    Battle Creek Special -- Info From PI4CC Contest Club
    Battle Creek Special -- Info From OK1RR -- Under Antennas
    Bazooka Antennas
    -- From WE6W
    Double Bazooka

    -- From The ARRL
    Beverage Antennas -- From The DX Zone
    Broadside Arrays -- From Integrated publications
    Broomstick Special -- A compact, easy-to-build shortwave antenna
    BuddiPole HomeBrew -- From W3FF

    Carolina Windoms - W2BLC
    Coax Connector Installation
    Coaxial Monopole -- From OE1MWW
    Coaxial Collinear Antennas
    COILS Base,
    Top Loading, Matching Networks, SWR, Open Wire Line -- Tons More From G4FGQ
    Collinear Arrays -- From Integrated publications
    Corner Reflector Antennas -- From By VE3RGW
    Cross Field Antennas
    -- by Maurice C. Hately GM3HAT & Ted Hart W5QJR
    Cubical Quad Antennas
    --- From The ARRL
    Cubical Quads 10-12-15 Meters From IZ7ATH
    Cubical Quad - Multiband - By EI7BA
    Cushcraft R5 Vertical Maintenance and Repair -- Click on ANT, then the little colored circle next to the word Cushcraft. Nice article well done
    Cushcraft R5 Matching Unit Rebuild -- by G0WCW using EI7BA method
    Cushcraft R7 Vertical...Maintenance and Repair
    Cushcraft Trap - Coaxial Capacitor Repair - R5, R7, etc,

    DDRR Antennas
    -- From The ARRL
    Dipole Antenna Calculator and construction details -- From AMANDX
    Center-Fed Half-Wave Dipole - Nice Illustration From K7MEM
    Discone Antenna Design -- From QRZ
    Discone Antenna Project - From William Sheets K2MQJ and Rudolf F Graf KA2CWL
    Discone - Parabolic - by Mike Lake KD8CIK - Highest gain discone antenna ever!
    Dipole Height
    -- How High??
    Double Extended Zepp Dipole -- Cut for 15 Meters
    Duplexer (Diplexer) 2m / 70cm AND Duplexer (Diplexer) HF + 6m / 2m + 70 cm HB9ABX
    DXpedition Antennas for Salt Water Locations - Vertical Or Yagi ??

    EH Antenna Forum -- Yahoo
    EH Antennas
    - How They Really Work From Tom W8JI
    EggBeater Antenna - VHF/UHF From Jerry, K5OE
    EggBeater Antenna - Commercial Product From M squared -- See EB-144 "Eggbeater"
    EME Antennas -- Loaded With Big Antennas
    End Fed Half Wavelength Antenna -- From AA5TB
    Tuner Design for Half-Wave Vertical & Similar-Length End-Fed Antennas From R.J.Edwards G4FGQ ©

    End-Fire Arrays -- From Integrated publications

    Fan Dipole For QRP -- From M0WYM
    Ferrite Loop Antenna -- for BC band -- From Oceanstate Electronics
    Fiber Glass Rods And Tubes -- From Max Gain Systems
    Four Square Vertical Phased Array -- From The Yankee Clipper Contest Club
    Flags and Pennants
    -- Receive antennas for limited space with good noise rejection.
    Folded Dipoles

    Four Dollar All Band Antenna
    -- From Joe Tyburczy, WB1GFH
    Full Wave Loop Antenna 10M thru 80M -- From Western Canada's Ham Radio YL Site
    FVR Spitfire Array -- From The Yankee Clipper Contest Club

    G5RV Design and length Considerations -- From AA1LL
    Grounding Is Key To Good Reception -- From John Doty

    Hair-Pin MonoPole -- A shorty From
    Wilfred Caron
    Half Square Antennas -- From K3KY
    Half Wave End Fed, No Radials Antenna -- From OE3MZC
    Halo Antenna 2M-- From N2KBK
    Halo Antenna 2M Square -- From N4UJW
    Halo Antenna 6M -- From W3DHJ
    HenTenna -- From The N4UJW Antenna Design Lab
    New HF Antenna From HB9ABX --
    construction of small HF antennas to provide the same efficiency as large antennas.
    HF Antennas - Various -- From The ARRL
    HF- and VHF-Yagi-antennas - HomeBrew -- From DK7ZB
    Height Of Dipoles - Patterns By AA3RL
    Hexagonal Beam - via EI7BA
    MegaHex Beam 30/40 Meter -- From K7HC
    HT Extension Antenna - The Tiger Tail

    IK-STIC -- multi-band vertical dipole antenna used for quick set-up and quick band change -- From W2IK
    IK-STIC 2 vertical, all band, antenna, 25 feet tall, under 5 pounds! With a tuner covers the amateur radio HF bands from 40 - 10 Meters.
    Inverted L Antennas By Arnie Coro(CO2KK)
    Inverted Vee Antenna
    -- From The N4UJW Antenna Design Lab
    Inverted Vee Antenna Design -- Nice Illustrations - From K7MEM

    J-Poles -- From The ARRL
    Super J-Pole Antenna (Collinear Design) - By KB0YKI 2M, 220, 440, 6M
    J-Poles Antennas -- Dimensions, matching, everything -- from Bux CommCo -- Be sure to read importance of a decoupling loop.
    K3KY Low Band Antennas
    -- HF Antenna for the Micro-Light Backpacking Enthusiast
    K6STI Receiving Loop
    K9AY Receiving Loop
    Kite Antennas - From G3CWI
    Kites For Lifting Antennas From The Hawaii Ham Radio Information Pages
    Kites For Antenna Lifting - From G6LFT / M0CUQ

    Ladder-Line Back Pack Special -- From W2IK
    Liquid Antennas -- Not April 1 stuff
    Log Periodic Antenna Calculator
    Full Wave Loop Antenna 10M thru 80M -- From Western Canada's Ham Radio YL Site
    Loops -- From The ARRL
    Loop Antennas
    -- Plans for each Amateur Band
    Loop Antenna Forum -- Yahoo -- Needs subscribing but lots of info here
    Low Band Antennas -- From K3KY

    Mac Antenna Master Software
    Magnetic Loops for HF
    -- From W2BRI
    HF Magnetic Loop Antennas -- By Glenn C Sperry, KI6GD
    Magnetic Loops -- By Wolfgang DJ3TZ
    Magnetic Loop Antenna -- From HB9ABX
    Magnetic Loop Design -- From QRZ
    Magnetic Loop Antenna's
    Magnetic Loop Antenna 10-30 Mhz -- From Matthew G0VBC

    Microwave Antenna HandBook
    -- From W1GHZ
    Mobile Antennas -- From The ARRL
    Mobile Dual Band VHF/UHF Antenna -- Homebrew Project from VE3RGW
    Mobile HF Antenna By HB9ABX
    Moxon Antenna Projects -- 17M and 20M Via KD6WD

    NVIS I- Near Vertical Incident Skywave Antennas -- By Patricia Gibbons - WA6UBE
    NVIS II - Near Vertical Incident Skywave Antennas Via WB5UDE
    NVIS III -- For Emergency EmComm folks -- From
    Bob, W2IK

    Parabolic Discone by Mike Lake KD8CIK - Highest gain discone antenna ever!
    Petlowany Three-Band Burner Antenna -- Short vertical antenna - Resonant on 20, 15 and 10 meters, without traps, 12 and 17M with a tuner.
    Phasing Arrays - Vertical Antennas -- From Butternut
    Portable Antennas -- From The Ham Club At University of Hawaii at Manoa
    Portable Antennas -- From HFPack
    Portable dual-band antenna
    for 20 and 10 meters. - The Flower Pot Antenna from IZØFYL
    QRZ Shareware Collection antennas -- over 40 antenna files
    Quad Antenna Calculator -- From KD6DKS Quads By EI7BA
    Quad Antennas --- From The ARRL
    Quad - Multiband - By EI7BA
    Rhombic Antennas 30M - 6M -- From KC0FVV
    Rhombic Antennas -- From Integrated publications
    Rhombic Antennas -- From Ian Cummings
    Feedback Rhombic
    -- -- From Ross W1HBQ
    Roof Top Tower -- By KB0YKI
    Rotary Dipole For 17 And 20

    Rubber Duc
    k Antennas

    Satellite Antennas
    Shortwave Receiving Antennas
    Skywire Loop Antenna -- From The ARRL
    Skywire Loop -- From Matthew G0VBC
    Slinky Antennas -- From Antennas and More
    Slinky Antenna for $10 -- From KG6IIR
    Sloper Antennas -- From The ARRL
    St Louis Vertical -- From The American QRP Club
    Stealth Antennas
    Sterba Curtain Antennas
    Sterba Curtain Antennas -- From Ham Universe
    Sterba Curtain 40M -- from KB8PGW

    T2FD Antenna
    T-Hunt Antennas
    Telrex Antenna Trap Repair -- From N6KI
    Tiger Tail HT Extension Antenna
    Transmission Line Calculator -- From AA3RL
    Traps From VE3GK
    Trapped Antennas -- From The ARRL
    Turnstile Antennas -- From Integrated publications
    Tower Talk Archives -- Lots of advice from a reflector
    Tower Installation
    -- Photos From W5AJ
    Tower Installation -- See how KO4BB did it
    Tower/Antenna Raising -- From Dr. Dave
    US Tower Specs, Base Data & More
    Titan Tower Specs, Base Data & More Via Champion Radio
    MARC - The Mast, Antenna, And Rotor Calculator Via Champion Radio

    Vee Antennas -- From Integrated publications Vertical Antennas -- From The ARRL
    Vertical Wide Band 7-21 MHz -- The RXO Unitenna -- from G3RXO
    Vertical Antennas - Dirty Little Secrets, Ground/Radial Systems, Phased Arrays of Short
    Vertical Antennas, Why Radials?- A MUST READ - From Butternut antennas Click On Tech Notes
    Vertical Antenna Loading Coils -- see LOADCOIL * Design short vertical antenna and loading coil. From Reg, G4FGQ
    Vertical Antenna Phasing Arrays - From Butternut Antennas
    Vertical Antennas & Ground Screens -- By N6RK
    VHF Antennas - Various -- From The ARRL
    W5QJR Antenna Via Antennex
    W5GI Mystery Antenna Kit -- Kit is at the bottom of the FAQ page, or homebrew info on main page
    Water Antennas -- Not April 1 stuff
    WaveGuide Tin Can Antennas -- From Gregory Rehm
    Windom - 6 Bands - From K3MT and daughter KF4LGR
    Yagi -- OWA -- Optimized Wideband Antenna -- Follow On Page By NW3Z
    Yagi Optimized Wideband Antennas By NW3Z
    Yagi/Beams -- From The ARRL
    Yagi Designs
    - Lots and Lots -- From TEARA - Click on Knowledge Quest, then topic.
    Stacking Yagis -- From The ARRL
    Wire Yagis -- from VE7CA

    Double Extended Zepp Dipole -- Cut for 15 Meters
    Zip Cord Wire As Transmission Lines and Radiators -- From The ARRL -- Click On Other HF Antennas
    ZL Special -- From The ARRL -- Click On Other HF Antennas

    160M/80M Coaxial Receiving Loops -- By KC2TX
    Balloon and Kite Antennas
    On The Top Band -- From G4VGO
    Battle Creek Special -- Info From PI4CC Contest Club
    KE4UYP Top-Fed 1/4 Wave Linear Loaded Vertical For 160M
    K5OE Antennas
    -- HF Antennas 40/80/160 55 ft Vertical
    Low Band Antenna -- From K3KY
    Verkürzte Antennen -- Short Dipoles and Verticals for 160m & 80m -- From DJ9RB
    Skywire Loop Antenna
    -- From The ARRL
    Antenna Projects From The YCCC -- Double-L For 80/160, Two Wire Beverage, A Poor Man's 160 Meter 4-Square, Using a 4 square Vertical
    Verkürzte Antennen
    -- Short Dipoles and Verticals for 160m & 80m -- From DJ9RB
    160/80/40 Meters - 55-Foot Vertical From K5OE
    VE3GK's Homebrew Site -- 80M Rotating 2 element Quad
    Verkürzte Antennen -- Short Dipoles and Verticals for 160m & 80m -- From DJ9RB
    Wire Antenna for 75 and 80 Meters -- From Ross W1HBQ
    40M/80M Trap Dipole
    -- From QRZ
    80/40 Meter Vertical From EI7BA
    80 Metre Slinky Dipole For QRP - From M0WYM
    80 Meter Inverted Vee From GERRY VE3GK
    80 Meter Antenna
    -- Reduced Size For Small Lots
    Short Dipole for 80M -- From 4S7NR
    80 Meter Frame Antenna -- From Harry Lythall - SM0VPO
    Full Wave Loop Antenna 10M thru 80M -- From Western Canada's Ham Radio YL Site
    KE4UYP Top-Fed 1/4 Wave Linear Loaded Vertical For 80M
    KE4UYP RSBVE (Reduced Si
    ze Broad El
    evation Verticals) For 80M
    KE4UYP Top-Fed 3/4 Wave Linear Loaded Vertical For 80M
    KE4UYP RSBVE (Reduced Size Broad Elevation Verticals) For 60M Verticals
    40M Shortened Loop
    -- By Ben Smith, W4KSY Via Antennex
    NVIS Roost Emergency Antenna Kit By Bob W2IK
    WB0NNI 40 Meter Linear Loaded Vertical
    K5OE Antennas -- HF Antennas 40/80/160 55 ft Vertical
    St. Louis Vertical -- By Dave Gauding, NF0R
    - for 40M -- Directional Discontinuity Ring Radiator Antenna
    40M Triangular Full-Wave Vertical Loop Antenna -- From W5DXP
    40M/80M Trap Dipole -- From QRZ
    40 Meter Delta Loop By PY4VE Via K4TX
    ShortyForty Dipole -- By W5VM Via K7MEM
    ShortyForty Dipole -- From FlashWebHost
    Sterba Curtain 40M -- from KB8PGW
    G5RV 40m Beam Antenna -- From W5DXP
    40m Vertical Antenna for $10 -- From KG6IIR
    End fed 20/30 Meter Antenna -- From W0VLZ

    20M 3 Element Monobander
    -- From The ARRL
    K5OE Antennas -- HF Antennas - 10/15/20 m Dipoles
    VE3GK's Homebrew Site -- 7Element 20M Yagi 63ft Boom
    20M Yagi Optimized Wideband Antenna
    20M Delta Loop
    Moxon Antenna Projects -- 17M and 20M Via KD6WD
    17M Beam Antennas
    -- From The ARRL
    Moxon Antenna Projects -- 17M and 20M Via KD6WD

    15 Meter Beam -- From The ARRL
    K5OE Antennas -- HF Antennas - 10/15/20 m Dipoles
    15M Delta Loop
    15M Yagi Optimized Wideband Antenna
    A One Element V Beam For 15 M From KB4XJ

    12M Beam Antennas -- From The ARRL
    Two element 10-Meter beam -- From The ARRL
    10M Yagis a Bunch -- From The Antenna Elmer
    10M Yagi Optimized Wideband Antenna

    No-Tuner, All-HF-Band, Horizontal, Center-Fed Antenna -- From W5DXP
    5 Band Log Periodic Dipole Array -- From VE7CA
    6-Band HF Center-Loaded Off-Center-Fed Dipole - From Serge, ON4AA
    7-Band Semi-Vertical Trap Antenna - From Bob Rice, VE3HKY
    12- and 17-meter lightweight Yagi -- From The ARRL
    All-band Wire Antenna - From Joe Tyburczy, WB1GFH
    Pyramidal Antenna for 14-30 MHz -- From Ross W1HBQ
    One Element Beam 20 Thru 6
    Eight Bands On One Coax - The Windom Antenna -- From KH2D
    CobWeb Antennas -- 5 Band From G3PJE
    Double-L Antenna For 80/160 -- Via The YCCC

    Full Wave Loop Antenna 10M thru 80M
    G5RV Multi-Band Antenna by Louis Varney
    Hex Beam 20 thru 10M -- From K4KIO
    IK-STIC -- multi-band vertical dipole antenna used for quick set-up and quick band change -- From W2IK
    IK-STIC 2 vertical, all band, antenna, 25 feet tall, under 5 pounds! With a tuner covers the amateur radio HF bands from 40 - 10 Meters.

    Multiband Antennas -- From The ARRL
    Multiband Dipole Antenna -- From The N4UJW Antenna Design Lab
    MultiBand Quad - By EI7BA
    MultiBand Vee Beam -- Six Band One Element Beam 20 meters thru 6 From LA0HV
    Mystery Antenna 80M thru 6M - John P Basilotto, W5GI

    Pedestrian 5-Band Mobile Antenna - From W3FF
    Petlowany Three-Band Burner Antenna -- Trapless short vertical antenna - Resonant on 20, 15 and 10 meters, without traps, 12 and 17M
    Portable All Band Antenna -- A multi-band vertical dipole antenna which can be used in the field for quick set-up and quick band change.
    Quads 10-12-15 Meters From IZ7ATH
    Rotary Dipole FOR 17 AND 20
    Spider Beam Portable Triband Yagi -- 10/15/20M
    Stealthy HF Coat Hanger Antenna 160 thru 10M -- By KR1ST
    Sturba Curtain - All Band
    St. Louis Vertical -- From Dave Gauding, NF0R

    Tri-Band 2 Element Portable Yagi -- From Markus Hansen, VE7CA
    Two Element Beam I for 10-, 15-, or 20-meters -- From The ARRL
    Two Element Beam II for 10-, 15-, or 20-meters -- From The ARRL
    Vertical Wide Band 7-21 MHz -- The RXO Unitenna -- from G3RXO
    Windom - 6 Bands - From K3MT and daughter KF4LGR
    Wonder-Whip AutoTransformer Antenna - 3.5 To 432 MHz !!!! From John M1IOS
    W5DXP's No-Tuner, All-HF-Band, Horizontal, Center-Fed Antenna

    Six Meter Antenna Potpurri By Brian D. Williams, GW0GHF
    5/8 Six Meter Vertical -- by G3JVL
    50 Mhz Antennas By ON4ANT
    Six Meter Antennas A Bunch -- From The UKSMG News
    Six Meter J-Pole -- By K4ABT
    Super J-Pole Antenna (Collinear Design) - By KB0YKI
    Six Meter Halo -- From Steve KB1DIG
    Six Meter Halo -- From W3DHJ
    Six Metre Portable Dipole For QRP - From M0WYM
    Six Meter Hex Beam -- three elements with a turning radius of 54 inches
    Six Meter Sloop By K0FF
    Six Metre Long-wire Aerial -- By Brian D. Williams, GW0GHF
    Six Metre Indoor Loop
    -- By Colen Harlow, G8BTK
    Six Metre Antenna
    -- By Maurius - ZR6YY
    Six Meter Long Wire Antenna - From GW0GHF
    Long-wire Aerial for Six Metres By Brian D. Williams, GW0GHF
    6M and 2M Yagi -- From The Antenna Elmer
    6M Yagis a Bunch -- From The Antenna Elmer
    Six Meter Yagi -- From The ARRL
    Six Meter three-element Yagi -- From The ARRL
    Six Meter Tri-Yagi -- From The ARRL
    Six Meter Monster Beam -- 8 element, 41 foot boom, 14.0 dBi gain, By N6CA
    Optimised Six-Metre Yagi by Brian Beezley, K6STI
    Two portable 6 meters antennas - two-element quad and a three-element yagi with telescoping elements -- From VE7CA

    2M/440 MHz Dual Band Copper J-Pole From N7QVC
    2M Fan Antenna (Yes From an Electrical fan)
    2 M 1/2-Wave J-Pole -- VHF-FM (Stealth) Antenna Made From 450-Ohm Ladder Line -- From KB1GTR & KB1DIG
    2M Self Supporting J-Pole for Emergency Use -- From Bob Hejl W2IK
    2M Log-Periodic Dipole Array -- From The ARRL
    2m 8db collinear for portable use.From M3FVB
    2m Quagi By W5UN
    2M Yagis a Bunch -- From The Antenna Elmer
    2M Quadix -- from Ross W1HBQ
    2m 8db collinear for portable use.M3FVB
    3 element 2-meter Yagi -- From The ARRL
    5 element 2-meter Yagi -- From The ARRL
    2M 9 Element Yagi
    6dB COLINEAR VHF ANTENNA -- From Harry Lythall - SM0VPO
    BiQuad For 2m/440 - FROM KE4UYP
    Building A 2-meter J-Pole Antenna By Jaden
    Cheap Yagi Antennas for VHF/UHF -- From Kent WA5VJB
    The Simplest Collinear -- From Ross W1HBQ
    Cycloid Collinear, a CP Omni for 2M from Ross W1HBQ
    Desk Buddy 2M Antenna - From Bob W2IK
    DDRR - for 2M -- Directional Discontinuity Ring Radiator Antenna
    Grid Yagi -- From Ross W1HBQ
    Halo Antenna 2M-- From N2KBK
    Halo Antenna 2M Square -- From N4UJW
    HO Collinear, a Horizontal Omni for 2M from Ross W1HBQ
    PacketRadio Operator's Antenna Handbook -- Antenna Basics, 2M & 6M Antennas
    SlimJim 2M Antenna
    Sperrtof 2M Antenna -- aka Sleeve Dipole or Sleeve J-Pole. By ON4CFC Via Antennex
    Super J-Pole Antenna (Collinear Design) - By KB0YKI
    VHF/UHF Antennas -- By KB0YKI -- J-Poles, Super J-Pole, Omnidirectional, Quads, Yagis
    VHF EggBeater Antenna - From ON6WG / F5VIF
    Quick and Simple 2 Meter Ground Plane Project Via HamUniverse

    W2IK Quick Stik Emergency Field Antenna For VHF/UHF -- stored in a PVC sewer tube (which also acts as it's lower base)
    Cheap Yagi Antennas for VHF/UHF
    -- From Kent WA5VJB
    220 MHz Quickie Quarter Wave Antenna -- From Artsci
    220 MHz J Pole Antenna -- From N6ZAV
    Super J-Pole Antenna (Collinear Design) - By KB0YKI

    Cheap Yagi Antennas for VHF/UHF -- From Kent WA5VJB
    Coaxial Collinear Antenna -- 432 MHz -- From Via N9ZIA
    Small 70cm Yagi -- From The ARRL
    9 dB, 70cm, Collinear Antenna From Coax -- Version I -- From N1HFX
    2M/440 MHz Dual Band Copper J-Pole From N7QVC
    432 8 Element Quagi Antenna By N2KBK
    440 MHz -- 2 Element & 4 Element Yagi's - From The Antenna Elmer
    Super J-Pole Antenna (Collinear Design) - By KB0YKI
    UHF EggBeater Antenna - From ON6WG / F5VIF
    432MHz 8 Element Quagi Antenna -- By IK1HGE
    Cheap Yagi Antennas for VHF/UHF -- From Kent WA5VJB
    Cheap Yagi Antennas for VHF/UHF -- From Kent WA5VJB
    Microwave Antennas and Greg's Wireless Networking Info Page
    Curtain Quad for 1296MHz -- From Ross W1HBQ
    Curtain Quad for 2.4 GHz
    -- From Ross W1HBQ
    2.4GHz Omni Antenna
    2.4 GHz Sardine Can Antenna -- A Double Quad Bow Tie
    Shortened 3D Corner Reflector Antenna - For 2.4 GHz - From Dragoslav Dobri YU1AW

    CC&R's? (You Got) -- Info from the ARRL
    K3QK's Legal Resources -- For hams can use it for that "tower project" CC&R Survival Series
    eHam Forum on Antenna Restrictions
    FCC Fact Sheet - Over-the-Air Reception Devices Rule Preemption of Restrictions on Placement of Direct Broadcast Satellite
    Antenna Restrictions - How To Chart - From The ARRL
    Antenna Zoning for the Radio Amateur - ARRL Book On legal aspects of antenna restrictions


    Balcony Antenna -- From Harry Lythall - SM0VPO
    Hidden, Stealth, HF Antennas -- From K3MT -- The GRASSWIRE -- You read it correctly!!
    Hidden, Stealth & Invisible Antennas -- Smartuners for Stealth Antennas From SGC, Inc.
    Hidden, Stealth, and Secret Antennas from AC6TS
    Stealth Amateur Radio - Book From The ARRL -- (ISBN: 0-87259-757-1) #7571
    Stealth Antenna Experiences - From Clif's ham radio connection.
    SGC Smartuners for Stealth Antennas -- Free - Click on "Download your copy today!"
    10M Bent Attic Antenna - A Yagi No Less
    2 M 1/2-Wave J-Pole -- VHF-FM (Stealth) Antenna Made From 450-Ohm Ladder Line --
    Small Gauge Wire Makes an "Invisible Antenna
    BuddiPole -- W3FF Products
    B&W Balcony
    /Window Antenna - AP-10A
    CliffDweller II antenna
    End-Fedz -- full length half wave dipoles, but with an important difference. The coax connector is at one end of the dipole, where it is most needed. From Universal Radio
    EZ HANG -- SlingShot & Reel Device for installing wire antennas
    Force 12- 9 Foot Vertical
    Force 12 Aluminum Flag Poles & Antennas
    MFJ Apartment Antenna 40 Meters to 2 Meters MFJ-1622
    MFJ Super Loop Antennas
    MFJ ScrewDriver Antennas
    Quicksilver Radio Products
    MinuteMan™ HF Portable Antennas
    Stealth Antennas -- HF Mobile Antennas By VE7BOC
    Texas BugCatcher - GLA Antennas
    Texas Twister - GLA Antennas
    Ventennas -- The Forbes Group
    Ventanna HFP-2 10 Foot HF Antenna -- 6.5 to 30 MHz !!!
    Vern Wright's HF Mobile Antennas, MP1

    The reproduction of the text below is authorised provided that the authorship is preserved and mentioned) - (All rights reserved-designed by PY4SM-PY2DD)