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Main Page - Marcus Martins / Minas Gerais / São Paulo / BRASIL - Portuguese


(Reproduction of this text is authorized provided the holder is preserved and mentioned - Copyright : Marcus Martins - PY4SM / PY2DD)


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The telegraph, as says our colleague José Geraldo Padua- PY2JGP, "is the art of transmitting coded messages through a specific device called the telegraph." The different sounds produced to manipulate the telegraph are able to offer a perfect understanding to the human ear. The system is represented by international convention signals and composed of larger signals ( traces ) or smaller ( points) on each letter and the pace is what will differentiate between them. As the signals form the sound, each letter has its distinctive sound, making it unmistakable with another letter or number, because the sound differs, so we briefly telegraphy, as a sound language and rhythm, making it a coded language.
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cw -manipulador.gif (1335 bytes) We can define as wired telegraphy, the message transmission in Morse code signals with the help of current flowing through the electrical circuit that connects the transmitter to the receiver equipment. The wireless telegraphy is the same transmission in Morse Code and that the signals are carried by electromagnetic waves through space.


A dentist named Mahlon Loomis received US Patent 129,971 for a "supposed" wireless telegraphy in 1872. This patent, a single-page, is a very vague statement about the use of "air power" to eliminate the overhead wire used by systems existing telegraph, but does not contain any scheme or diagram of how to build it, nor any theory of how it might work. Loomis imagined towers "at the top of the high mountains, and so establish the electrical connection with the strata of the atmosphere for forming the electric circuit." Loomis patent is substantially similar to US Patent 126.356 that was received three months prior to Ward by William Henry It requested it on June 29, 1871, when Loomis was actively promoting the idea of ​​using atmospheric electricity to the telegraph. Ward patent also does not contain any schematic. Instead, Ward illustrates and describes towers turning against the wind "to drive an air current power supply within the isolated portion of the tower where the current is passed upwardly through the top of the tower and out through the ventilator or top. It states that the tower continually receive new electricity supplies. "


The two patents, in a few paragraphs, use almost identical language :


(Loomis ) "I may dispense with all artificial batteries for use free electricity from the atmosphere, to conduct the telegraphy and for other purposes, such as light, heat and driving force."


(Ward ) "I completely eliminating the use of artificial batteries to form my circuit , simply by connecting the air stream with the ground current and thus uses them to land lines or aerial telegraph, light, heat and driving force."


Both never proved these inventions.


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The telegraph was invented by the American Samuel Finley Breese Morse, who in addition to inventing the telegraph, guided and prepared the relevant code, which also bore his name. The Morse code until now known, used and spread around the world, are short signals ( points) and long (dashes ) combined to match the numbers and letters of the alphabet, thus producing different sounds, each letter, number or punctuation has its characteristic sound, making it unmistakable.


But the wireless telegraph was definitely invented by Italian engineer Gugliemo Marconi, who in the year 1895 began the transmission and reception of signals via electromagnetic waves, wireless, using the telegraph by Samuel Morse. Marconi consolidated several discoveries of the time, achieving total success in transmitting and receiving Morse code signals by radio over wireless telegraphy, and shall be accorded the device patent in the year 1896 in England.

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The radio and amateur radio emerged almost simultaneously because of the great interest in researching all electromagnetic phenomena. Despite the dizzying technological development of today, artisanal assembly equipment gained a connotation of substantial challenge that remains in the practices of amateurs as well as the extensive research field around antennas, propagation of radio electric signals carried by electromagnetic waves and Technological Research.


The telegraph was invented by Samuel Finley Breese Morse, born April 27, 1791 in Charlestown, Massachusetts - United States, he studied at Yale College, where he became interested in electricity. In 1832, during a boat trip, he participated in a debate on the electromagnet, still little known device. In 1835 it built its first functional prototype telegraph whose research and developments extended until mid-year 1838 when, finally, was a really functional signs of code called Morse code. In 1843 he managed funds for his invention through the US Congress, and in 1844 was completed the first telegraph line linking Baltimore to Washington, DC. In his first official broadcast the message was: "What hath God wrought !


Samuel Morse died on April 2, 1872, in New York.


The telegraph is still widely used by global communications. Since the Second World War came to be used in parallel with other modes of transmission such as SSB Single Side Band, currently uses up the radio package for encrypted communications but Morse code is still being used in various applications of terrestrial communications and air and maritime navigation. Also some satellites use the Morse code for its identification signal location and telemetry .

The Morse code is also (largely ) used worldwide by ham radio, where every day, thousands of " dots and dashes " cross the air through the broadcasts of this enthusiastic communications. On the internet we can find Morse code training software.


The telegraph was inaugurated in Brazil in 1857, with the installation of the first telegraph line between the beach of Health in the city of Rio de Janeiro and the city of Petrópolis. This first line had a length of 50 km, with 15 km of submarine cable in the bed of Guanabara Bay. The first international connection by submarine cable was due to the initiative of Irineu Evangelista de Souza, who by Decree No. 5058 of August 16, 1872, got the privilege for 20 years to lay submarine cables and explore electric telegraphy between Brazil and Europe.


On December 23, 1873 was made ​​a connection between the cities of Rio de Janeiro and of Belem, Recife and Salvador, in the presence of Emperor Dom Pedro II, who watched the arrival of submarine cable to Brazil, and completion of the link in a building erected for this purpose at the end of Copacabana beach. Once the connection has been established, the Emperor sent cables to the presidents of those three provinces, as follows:

"I think if the submarine cable in the territory of Brazil's capital. Electricity begins to connect the most important cities of this empire, like patriotism meets all Brazilians the same commitment to the prosperity of our majestic country. The Emperor therefore welcomes the the states of Bahia, Pernambuco and Pará, for as fausto event, as their first compatriot and sincere friend. Even the good year 1874.


That same day, for services to the Empire of Brazil, the then Baron of Mauá was elevated to Visconde de Mauá.


On June 22, 1874, it was completed the connection with Europe, between the stations of Recife and Carcavelos (in Portugal ), via Cape Verde and Madeira. The news was received by the Emperor when visiting the National Library, then installed in the street Ride No. 46. This move sent cables to the president of the Brazilian Submarine Telegraph Company (later Western Telegraph Co. Ltd.) and the monarchs of Portugal, England and Austria. At the time there were demonstrations at City Hall and popular jubilation, and the press reported, for several days, news about it.


The following year (1875), the connection between Recife, João Pessoa and Natal was established. Later, in 1893 the English company South American Cables Ltd. installed a submarine cable in Fernando de Noronha. In 1914 the granting of this cable was transferred to France. A second submarine cable on the same island was launched by the Italian Italcable in 1925.


Since the dawn of civilization, because the need for communication at distance, man created numerous systems that would enable the transmission of your messages. This transmission originally performed by means of sound or light signals in place and being translated in other common code. Among the telegraph systems the world's leading listed the Samuel Morse (USA), Wheatstone (England) and the Steinhail (Germany). The Morse system was the one that presented more fully, keeping its basic lines to this day. In very recent times it was created the Advisory Committee Inter -national Telegraph, in order to standardize telegraph transmissions, adopting standardized coding and frequencies.


In November 1997 there was the World Radio Conference ( CRM -97 ) ITU ( International Telecommunication Union ), which is the international body responsible for standardizing all telecommunications on our planet. This Conference was presented and approved the official pronouncement ITU / IARU regarding the use of telegraphy in the world. Nothing affected the amateur radio service, and decisions about possible changes in the requirements of the tests MORSE CODE, were postponed to a later date.


References to the immediate termination of the CW, is the result of misinformation and confusion. It turns out that the services using the Morse code by Marine from various countries has been closed, and that, fortunately HAS no relation to the amateur radio service.


Moreover, questions about a possible realignment of the range of 40 meters, seeking to resolve a conflict between the amateur service and the broadcasting service, subject considered very important in the amateur, is practically solved only missing some details with the Soviet Union and China.




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Full stop

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( , )

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Two points or division sign

( : )

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Question mark (question note or interpellation to repeat a missed transmission)

( ? )

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( ' )

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Hyphen or dash or minus sign

( - )

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Fraction bar or division sign

( / )

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Left Parenthesis

( ( )

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Right Parenthesis

( ) )

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Quotation (acceptance marks) before and after the words

( " )

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Double hyphen

( = )

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Error (eight points) n/c

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Cross or Plus sign

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Call for transmission n/c

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Waiting n/c

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Awaiting final n/c

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Start signal (start ) ( to precede every transmission)


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Multiplication sign

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 International Code "Q"


QRA - Operator name , or station.

QRB - What to its distance ?

QRD - What is your location ?

QRG - Operating Frequency

QRH - Their frequency varies

QRI - Tone signals ( 1 to 5 )

QRK - Readability of signs ( 1 to 5 )

QRL - I'm busy . Do not interfere please

QRM - interference from another station

QRN - Atmospheric interference or static

QRO - Increase your power

QRP - Decrease your power

QRQ - faster Handle

QRR - S.O.S. land

QRS - Handle slower

QRT - I'll stop has assigned

QRU - Do you have anything for me

QRV - I'll be at your disposal

QRW - Station "X" flame ... K

QRX - Wait your turn to pass

QRY - When is my turn to pass

QRZ - Who is calling me ?

QSA - intensity signals ( 1 to 5 )

QSB - Your signal varies

DSF - Its transmission is defective

QSJ - rate - Money - Value

QSL - all understood - confirmed - OK

QSM - Repeat the last mess

QSN - Do you hear me ?

QSO - Notice or contact

QSP - Message Relay to another station

QST - Notice of general interest

QSU - Transmit or listen on ... kHz

QSL - Send a series of " V "

QSW - I will pass on this or another frequency ?

QSX - will hear your message in ... KHZ

QSY - I will transmit on another frequency ! Shall we?

QSZ - Shall I send each word or group?

QTA - set aside the previous message

QTB - I agree w / your word count

QTC - Message - News

QTH - Place where it will station

QTR - Hours - Time

QTX - I'll be out indefinitely

QUZ - I got your Emergency signal

QUF - I got your distress signal

QAP - Standing always listening

CQ - General call

DX - Contact to distance

AS - Waiting

OK - all right - Understood


51 - Handshake

55 - Happiness

73 - My compliments - Hugs


ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)AC6V Morse Code Pages
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)AF4LQ - CW HomePage
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)AGCW - German CW Club
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)KO6YQ
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Learning and Using Morse Code
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Learning the Telegraphic Code
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Lego Paddle Project
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)LZ1FW
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)All FNW Events
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Alliance Amateur Radio Club, W8KLY
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Amateur Radio Club of Savannah (ARCS)
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)ARRL
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Arte Design
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Australian Overland Telegraph Line
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)BBC
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Beginner's Guide to Making CW Contacts - WB8FSV
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Bencher, Inc.
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Bug Stories
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Bulldog
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Cal-Av Labs
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Canadian Railway Telegraph History
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Chicken Fat Operators
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Codemaster V
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CodeMorse (para dos)
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Coherent CW
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Commercial Radio KPH Coastal Telegraph Station
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Craftsman Morse Keys
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CW Facts and Operating Tips
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CW Guesser
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CW MIDI
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CW Nets
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CW Net Page
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CW Operating Aids
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CW Revolution
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CW Software
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CW Solo DXers
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CWDF - Grupo de CW do Distrito Federal
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Grupo Alternativo Rondon de Rádio Amador
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Grupo CWRJ
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)CWSP
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Deming Amateur Radio Club, W5DAR
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Deutscher Telegrafie Club
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)DMorse Program
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)EHSC
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)EUCW
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)F6IIE
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS Code Buddy Program
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS - (Cowlitz) Amateur Radio Club, WA7YYY
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS East Bay Contest Society, AE6TT
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS Club of South Carolina, WC4CW
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS CW Club of Coastal Georgia
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS - Deming, NM W5DAR
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS HQ - UK
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS - Illinois
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS JA
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS New England, K1FFF
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS Northwest Club
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS Northwest Member Roster
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS of Long Island, K2FFF
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS San Diego County
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS Slow Traffic Net (FSN)
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS - UK - maintained by G0TIP
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS - UK - maintained by GI0SSA
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FISTS USS Pampanito Amateur Radio Club, NJ6VT
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Flying Pigs QRP Club, W8PIG
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FNW Member Guidelines
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FNW Member Guidelines
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FNW Images  
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FNW Past Event: The Club in Kauai
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)FOC
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)G0UKB
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)GACW
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)G4CZR
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)G4TQM
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)G4ZPY
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Georgia State Traffic Net (GSN)
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)GHD Key Products
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Grêmio de Radioamadores de Maringá, PR
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Ham Radio Online - Morse Code in Music
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Head Copy
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Hensley Paddles
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Heritage Amateur Radio Club, VE3HRC
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)High Speed Telegraphy
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Hy Power Antenna Company
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Iambic Mode 'A' vs. Iambic Mode 'B'
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)ICQ
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)International Morse Code Program
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)JARL A1 Club
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Japanese Morse Code
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)J.H. Bunnell & Company
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)José Geraldo de Pádua-PY2JGP
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)K1EL's page for The K8 and other keyers
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)K1TTT - Technical Reference
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)K3MT
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)K3WWP
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)K5RW
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)K7QO
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)KB1SG
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)KB9OCE
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)KH2D
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Manipulador
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)March Paddles
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Maryland Slow Traffic Net (MSN)
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)MEGS
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)MFJ
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Milestone Technologies: Morse Express
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse 99
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse 2000 Homepage
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Academy
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Cat by DK5CI
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code and the Phonetic Alphabets
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code: Breaking the Barrier
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code Deciphered
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code Mnemonics
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code Practice QSO's
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code Practice Java Applet
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code Prose
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code Teaching Machine
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code: The Theory of Overlearning
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code Tidbits
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code Translator
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Code Won't Sign Off
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Enthusiasts Group Scotland
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Express
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse for Beginners & Improvers
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Goes to the Movies
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Historic Site
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse, Samuel F. B.
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse Telegraph Club, Inc.
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morse training using Koch's Method
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Morsum Magnificat
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)MPR37 Morse Software
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)MRX
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)N1EA
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)N5LF
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)N7RD
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)National Traffic System (NTS)
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Navy Training Course Morse
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Norbert Pieper's MRP37 Morse Program
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)NorCal Paddle Kit Instructions
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)North American FISTS Home Page
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)North Norfolk Amateur Radio Group, GB2MC
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Northwest Boater's Net
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)NO-SSB International
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Nu Morse Code Trainer
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)NW7US
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Ohio Valley FISTS, W8FFF
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)PA3BWK's Ultimate CW Web Site
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Paddlette Company
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Pampanito Amateur Radio Club, NJ6VT
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)PED Contest Simulator
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Pile Up!
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)PP6QM
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)PY1WAS
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)QRQ Home Page
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)QRZ
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Rescue at Sea
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)RUFZ
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Scandinavian CW Activity Group
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Schurr Keys
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)SHSP
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Society of Wireless Pioneers
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Sparks Telegraph Key Review
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Super Morse
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Tabela de Código Morse-Telegraph On-Line
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Tarant County College ARC, K5TCC
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Telegraph Lore
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)The Art and Skill of Radio-Telegraphy
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)The Kea Keyer
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)The Mill
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)The Telegraph Office
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Telegraph Wireless World
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Telegraphy in Action by Jim Farrior, W4FOK
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Uncle Sparky's Maritime Radio Page
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Union Francaise des Telegraphistes
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)UT7CT
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)VE3CQD
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Vectronics
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)VHSC
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Vibroplex Collector's Page
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Vibroplex Company
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Vista Valley FISTS Club, K6FFF
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)VWOA
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Walt's World
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)WBL Design Paddles
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)WBL Owner's Page
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)WB0JNR
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Whiterook Products Company
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)Why Learn and Use CW?
ballgreen.gif (104 bytes)W1AW