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Location and destroying hand mines
DIFFERENT LAND MINES
After ten years of fighting, Mozambique gained independence from Portugal on 25 June 1975. Mozambicans celebrate their independence each year on this day which has become the national holiday of Mozambique. On 16 September 1975, Mozambique became an official Member State of the United Nations.
The country's Portuguese colonial elite left immediately following independence. Not long after, Mozambique, like Angola, got caught up in the regional turmoil fueled by Cold War rivalries and the policies of the Apartheid regime in next-door South Africa. Almost two decades of civil war finally came to an end in 1992. The collapse of white regimes throughout southern Africa, the end of the Cold War, and a devastating famine, provided the backdrop for the General Peace Accord signed between the warring sides in Rome. A UN peacekeeping mission then went in to Mozambique to consolidate the peace, implement free elections, demilitarize and demine the countryside.
After almost thirty years of war, Mozambique is one of the poorest countries in Africa. Grain must be imported and the economy depends heavily on foreign aid. Mozambique is faced with desertification, pollution of surface and coastal waters, and severe drought and floods in the central and southern provinces.
In addition, much of its farmable land is unusable because of landmines. "Perhaps the most devastating use of land mines was the random dissection of mines in fields and along access paths to stop peasants from producing food," notes Human Rights Watch Africa in a report entitled "Land Mines and Economic Life". Mines manufactured in 15 different countries were used by all sides in the fighting, accelerating a devastating famine cycle in the 1980s that sent a huge refugee exodus across the borders with South Africa, Zambia, Tanzania and Malawi.
According to Handicap International, an estimated 20 people step on landmines every month in Mozambique. Sixty percent of them die because they lack access to health services. In 1996, Mozambique's Defence Minister estimated that there were still about 3 million landmines in Mozambique. The average life expectancy in Mozambique is about 46 years.
The devastation caused by mines in Mozambique is striking. In addition to farmable land, power lines, roads, bridges, railroads, and airports, even schools, factories and cattle dip tanks (!) were mined. Wildlife is also threatened by mines: elephants have been found maimed by anti-personnel mines and killed by anti-tank mines.
On 26 February 1997, at the fourth conference of non-governmental organizations on landmines which met in Maputo, Mozambique's government announced a ban on the production, trade, use and non-authorized movement of anti-personnel mines and urged the international community to send assistance to help demine the countryside.
Mozambique has many unexploded mines. Stay on roads and seek local advice before wandering off track no matter where you are.
Armed robbery and drive-by theft at gunpoint are not uncommon in Maputo. Women are advised not to walk alone along any beach in Mozambique, and travel by convoy is recommended throughout the country, owing to the risk of banditry.
The border with South Africa has had its share of bandit problems. Take precautions if you are making the crossing alone
Todos sabemos que os países tropicais nsão favoráveis ao surgimento de algumas doenças perigosas.
Fomos a uma consulta no Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical e recebidos pela simpática Dra. Rosa Teodósio fizemos então a vacinação da Febre Amarela e aproveitámos para actualizar a vacina do Tétano. Iniciámos também a Profilaxia do Paludismo ou Malária com comprimidos Mephaquin, este comprimido deve ser tomado 1 semana antes da partida e depois nas semanas seguintes após a chegada.
Mas devem ser seguidas um inúmero de regras e recomendações tais como a utilização de repelentes e is very important for anyone to page is dedicated for Our support, it´s It's necessary to have the International Certificate of Vaccination or REvaccination against Yellow fever.
Febre Amarela - Doença infecciosa tropical caracterizada por calafrios, febre icterícia. É transmitida ao homem pela picada do mosquito Stegomia fasciata. Os rins e o coração também são afectados. Tornou-se mais rara graças ao controlo dos mosquitos e vacinação. Esta doença é de participação obrigatória à Organização Mundial de saúde.
Malária - Doença que se caracteriza por febre intermitente e renitente. Os antigos acreditavam que este mal provinha do ar contaminado que emanava de águas palustres. Os seus agentes são espécies de esporozoáriosdo género plasmódio. Os tipos conhecidos destes plasmódios são:
O plasmódium malárie, provoca a febre quartã, com ataques de 3 em 3 dias. Pode hibernar no fígado e causar ataques esporádicos muito tempo depois de o doente ter deixado o local de contaminação.
O plasmódium vivax, causa a febre terçã com ataques em dias alternados.
O plasmódium ovale, causa malária terçã em regiões de áfrica central..
O plasmódium falciparum, provoca a febre subterçã, também chamada malária ou febre perniciosa. Como a malária é transmitida pelo mosquito, a forma mais eficaz é a profilaxia e para a irradiar consiste no combate a estes insectos.
Deve por isso evitar tomar banhos em lagos ou lagoas. Durante o nascer e o pôr-do-sol existe maior actividade destes insectos, utilize sempre roupa de modo a cobrir todo o corpo evitando zonas a descoberto e há que utilizar os repelentes ( em spray, pomada ou rolone )é necessário renovar de 4 em 4 horas, pois vão perdendo eficácia. Durante a noite utilizar um insecticida ambientador (do género daqueles que se ligam na tomada de corrente eléctrica) se o quarto for provido de ar condicionado , ligue-o no frio.
Diarreia Frequência e fluidez das fezes. A maior parte das diarreias são devidas à inflamação do intestino, com excessiva produção de muco aquoso. Esta inflamação pode ser provocada por viroses, bactérias . O combate eficaz é a utilização de antibióticos.
Disenteria Doença infecciosa, por vezes epidémica, que se caracteriza por inflamação do intestino grosso. Mais comum nos países tropicais. Pode ser provocada por um parasita intestinal molecular ( a ameba) a que chamamos disenteria amebiana ou por uma enterobactéria , e é o caso da disenteria bacilar. Como no caso da diarreiaa, a terapêutica é feita com antibióticos.
This is very important for anyone to page is dedicated for Our support, it´s It's necessary to have the International Certificate of Vaccination or REvaccination against Yellow fever.
For Malaria we used the Mephaquin commercial will be tuned in to this discussion as well, and will reply to questions posted here. Otherwise you can receive customer support by sending e-mail to [Company Email] for a personal reply; or placing a call to [Company Phone].
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Primary Health Care Programme
Capacity building is an important component of the Programme. In 2000, training was provided to health authorities and youth in the areas of immunisation management, HIV/AIDS and breast-feeding.
The Mozambique Initiative is now a well-accepted approach to primary health care. The strategy aims to involve communities in managing their own primary health care based on a cost recovery scheme. UNICEF continued to focus its efforts covering all country, supporting the construction of six health posts. In addition, Nuova Fronteira has activities in water, environmental sanitation and education in several communities of diferent provinces is UNICEF´s partner in training local health committees and in general, in the promotion of a better understanding and acceptance of the strategy by the communities.
Some constraints to be overcome in BI are: weak financial management on the part of health committees, poor pay of health workers and irrational use of drugs.
In reproductive health, UNICEF completed its support to the central maternity with the procurement of materials. Traditional birth attendants were provided with kits. The challenge is to link reproductive health to the Bamako Initiative and integrated child disease management. A technical WHO mission came to prepare the terms of reference for a comprehensive evaluation of the National Reproductive Health Programme, in which UNICEF will be a full partner.
At present, the National Institute for Statistics and UNICEF are conducting a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey at household level. The Survey is mostly directed to health indicators. Its results will be published at the end of December and its data will serve as input to the End of Decade Review by the Secretary General in September 2001. The Survey is expected to contribute substantially to national social planning. The findings are certain to be reinforced by the upcoming Census in 2001.
Most HIV/AIDS interventions are channeled through the United Nations theme group UNAIDS. UNAIDS has established a technical group, which plays an advisory role to the Heads of Agencies. In 1999, UNICEF supported the Programa Nacional de Luta contra SIDA with the realisation of radio
programming and screening of films at schools. The UN agencies have commissioned a survey on HIV/AIDS prevalence, to begin in September 2000. The results of the survey will form the basis of a national plan of action.
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