↑ The Ionosphere enables Skywave Propagation

By Doron Tal, 4X4XM

The atmosphere is classified into layers based on its physical properties and functions.
Here we focus on the ionosphere, located between 85 and 690 kilometers above Earth's surface

In that region, EUV sunlight ionizes atoms and molecules, releasing free electrons and ions that combine to form plasma.

Plasma State courtesy P.R.A. Co., Ltd. (Plasma Related Alliance), Japan

The ionosphere is divided into layers/regions that range in altitude from 48 to 600 kilometers above the earth's surface.

These layers are distinguished by their electron densities.

HF radio waves aimed at the inosphere can be bounced, allowing for global communication channels.

Back to the main page: Ionosphere radio wave propagation. See also an index for HF Radio Propagarion.

The Understanding HF Propagation Project provides radio amateurs with a detailed overview and tutorials on several aspects of HF propagation.

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