↑ Understanding Skywave Propagation
An overview

By Doron Tal, 4X4XM

Radio amateurs use a variety of propagation modes, including line-of-sight, ground-wave, and skywave.

Illustration of HF Propagation Modes
Propagation Modes

Line of sight involves direct transmission; ground waves descend along Earth's surface; and skywaves (HF bands) bounce off the ionosphere over very long distances. Therefore, understanding skywave propagation is essential for radio amateurs.

The solar radiation generates Earth's ionosphere, that enables HF radio waves to be reflected and propage over very long distances.

Long distance communication by ionospheric refractions

The "propagation conditions" of skywave change along time of day, seasons, and due to the erratic solar activity.

Understanding skywave propagation is crucial for a successful communication of radio operators, requiring them to learn and practice various factors.

A review of the last 24 hours HF Propagation Map:
MUF 3000 Km map animated review of HF propagation map
Static maps provided by Andrew D Rodland, KC2G updated every 15 minutes.
The animated version was made by Roland Gafner, HB9VQQ who extended
the static presentation, showing the last 24 hours, in 15 minutes steps.

To learn more please visit a comprehensive overview and tutorials on HF propagation conditions. See also an index for HF Radio Propagarion.

HF Skywave Propagation for radio amateurs

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