Learn more about DX
What is a DX
The radio communication from
its beginnings, launched as a major challenge, the gradual increase in
distances of communications, both in the amateur area and in the area
of professional activity, always aiming to achieve greater distances
with maximum possible economic rationality.
practice of DX is exercised from the beginning of the twentieth
century and to run a DX, both amateurs (transmit and receive ) as
practitioners of SWL ( receive only ),
require certain conditions ideal climate,
propagation, equipment, etc. It can be said in general terms that
"DX " in amateur radio is the constant search for long distance
communication with other radio amateurs from countries or more distant
points and exhibit greater difficulty in making the contact. The
language adopted in a contact DX is English, and it is advisable to
"dx -man ", always have to hand the list of the world call signs in
order to facilitate know which country is being carried out contact -
(See full list on this page ).
Once executed a contact, this
should be recorded in file must contain at least: date and time GMT (
UTC ), also known as Zulu time (in Brazil this is GMT plus three
hours); reception conditions (RST code); the communication mode (AM,
FM, CW, USB, LSB, Packet, PSK, SSTV) and the frequency used.
So that there was an
organizing parameter for the pursuit of these contacts the wide
distance, it was agreed internationally a list of countries published
by the ARRL -American Radio Relay League-, as a formal parameter
localities for the purpose of "DX" would be considered as valid
countries - this list is constantly updated due to changes in
technical, political and social. Thus, from time to time, they are
removed and added to the official list, new countries, as well as
added and removed prefix codes of the various countries listed.
that there was an organizing parameter for the pursuit of these
contacts the wide distance, it was agreed internationally a list of
countries published by the ARRL -American Radio Relay League, as a
formal parameter localities for the purpose of "DX " would be
considered as valid countries - this list is constantly updated due to
changes in technical, political and social. Thus, from time to time,
they are removed and added to the official list, new countries, as
well as added and removed prefix codes of the various countries
What is a "DX-MAN"
Speaking in terms used by the international amateur radio, "DX -MAN"
(DX operator) is the one ham that among the various radio amateurs
activities such as rounds, casual chats, VHF operation, UHF satellite
tracking, utilities, contests national and international; The DX-man
constantly demand ( with particular emphasis ) to increase your
contacts score a long distance.
Logically it was agreed also internationally the existence of a
threshold for the definition of DX-man and this plateau, although not
fully accepted by the international amateur radio class, is
characterized as the "DX-CC" which is proving a certificate attesting
that the amateur requesting worked and received confirmation releases
100 countries worldwide.
is due to the operation of "DX" is in reality a competition and, by
nature, all competition must have an assumption performance
improvement challenge, it can be said that the "DX" operation is a
competition that does not end , they are constantly create new
countries, for the purpose DXCC, it creates new complexities in the
various certificates such that the "DX-MAN" should always be exceeding
its previous mark. After achieving the certificate of DXCC, the DX-MAN
can apply it to the following certificates arising from: DXCC-CW, SSB
or mixed, 5BDXCC - 100 countries in each of the 5 bands (80,40,20,15
and 10 meters ).
While it may maintain a
longer conversation in contact "DX", as a rule, the more rare is the
location in connection faster should be the QSO, and even in cases of
"rare figurines" to only change the story. The List of Countries
Postwar ARRL is the official
standard used by DXCC (DX Century Club) and to qualify the DXCC award,
the amateur has to undergo to confirm contacts made with at least 100
different countries dates after November 15, 1945, according to the
DXCC Rules Postwar.
QSL cards should be sent to
the DXCC for evaluation and if approved you will receive the club's
certificate. These QSL cards will be returned. (Obs: usually they
return, but there are cases that are not returned or returned in
There are other contests and
clubs that will be subsequently disclosing the listings and
qualifications of each of them. The main difference between clubs and
contests for clubs is that you have to meet a certain goal, a number
of countries or partners and confirm them. From that moment, you are
entitled to a club. The contests have as main feature the short period
of its duration, the technical test and measurement spread in certain
tracks. Another feature of the contests is the disclosure of holidays
entities, cities and countries.
The contest in the background
becomes a big competition between radio amateurs around the world
because usually the contacts are made with sequence number and are
created various types of classification, by band used by amount of
operators and modes of operation. To add to this dispute, awards are
given to top finishers in all class types and classification. For this
reason the contests are also called contests, exactly the disputes.
The confirmations of contacts are crossed with the reports that are
sent to the organizers of the event and from these reports and logs
are confirmed which operators obtained more contacts in each category.
There are some classification
criteria according to the contest, depending on key stations that are
assigned by the organizers of the contest and contacted countries.
There are some multipliers to these stations, so the operator who
obtains the most points wins first place in the competition standings.
No engineer, doctor, dentist or other
professional anyone can learn and be successful only in college...
Everyone needs some time to develop the ability and skill in their
activities. With the practice of amateur happens exactly the same,
definitely not just study the apostilhas and be approved in the
exams! This does not guarantee that we will be good operators...
For our operational development is primarily necessary to
understand and listen carefully bands hams, we follow the rounds
and the various contacts are being maintained. So with a quiet,
tuned our ears and learn to use the most appropriate, ethical and
correct the "Q" code as well as the various expressions used by
operators. For example: knowing how to use the phonetic alphabet
official and abbreviated terms CW, always be courteous, polite and
Shipments of " DX "
operations are organized , as a rule , by excellent operators "
DX " the rare locations for short periods. These expeditions are
too requested throughout the world amateur radio population ,
thus requiring much skill and patience to work them , as the
operating periods are usually very short , sometimes only 48
hours, which makes the job of operating them one chess game .
The ARRL maintains strict rules regarding the shipment
acceptance as valid for purposes of "New Country " , and the
main parameters for this judgment are characterized by the
authorization certified by the appropriate power of that country
to use prefix in the expedition and its exact geographic
location is within the minimum distance parameters set by the
The world radio amateur
international, for the purpose of promoting amateur in
competition level, has seen fit to introduce several
"international contests", which in recent years have received an
increasing influx and an increasingly impressive acceptance by
radio amateurs worldwide. The international contests are
competitions usually 48 hours, where the scoring parameters and
score are the result of the largest possible number of QSO's
with the highest number of multipliers (countries or regions) in
certain special conditions. The main international contests of
today are: World Wide DX Contest and WPX Contest , sponsored by
CQ- Magazine; WAEDC, promoted by Germany; ARRL Contest,
sponsored by the American Radio Relay League; Word 40 meters SSB
Championship, sponsored by the magazine 73 of the United States;
Scandinavian Contest, sponsored by Sweden.
It is extremely
important for the DX-man meet with a certain level of detail,
the various factors that directly influence the propagation
conditions of the various amateur radio bands. The HF
communications as we know reach greater distances, through
reflection of radio waves in the ionosphere. This reflection
phenomenon allows the ionosphere contacts with a reflection or
more, and of course, the greater the number of reflections, the
greater the loss by absorption at the time of reflection, or the
ionosphere or the earth layer.
The saying goes that
"the discussion comes light" or that "the discussion is what
is called the Education... or lack of it..."
If we bring into our midst we can say that it is for the DX,
Contests, DXpedition 'if so, we know the Ethics and Education
of the participating amateurs.
It tells the Popular
Electronics Magazine that an experienced colleague of ours,
shining star DX, international contests champion recently "tried
to" participate in a Brazilian tender. That our colleague in
international competitions can within a week 5,000 contacts failed
to even 10 QSO's in 5 hours period... An absurd as it was
subjected to massacre!
The result is that vowed never to participate in any national
It is very natural that the tender
participants wish to obtain good results, great performance,
but this should NEVER be grounds for attacks on Ethics and
The expectation that we can collaborate
with the success of each is that we have prepared this article
which will seek comment on some topics we deem interesting and
useful for all during the practice of DX:
Never call in a
single ticket exchange, calling one of the contestants before
being closed the QSO or even after the completion of the
message exchange. Wait a new call!
If the frequency
"belongs" to another colleague, we must release it immediately
after scoring the "blip", making a QSY.
By doing QSY should
avoid the vicinity of colleague frequency in order not to harm
you in your QSO's.
Avoid operation with high power in an
attempt to "cover" each other and be heard, use more power
only when really necessary.
Before you call a DX, CQ-CONTEST (CQ-TEST),
CORUJE carefully chosen frequency. Sometimes the frequency is
already occupied by a station whose signals are received with
some difficulty because it is distant location or be operating
in QRP mode.
If you hear one "figurine" in late QSO
before calling it OBSERVE who is the priority in frequency; if
another colleague, wait for your turn.
Defend yourself from the "attackers"
without hurting ethics: if a colleague calling him out of
these standards, just do all you did not hear...
IMPORTANT: Many participants contests
record on a "black list" those aggressors and simply stop
having reception for them. Sometimes a simple QRL is enough to
let the aggressor on the hanger.
Some other minimum knowledge
and care is needed to enable success in our DX's. Next, we try to show
them in a simple and accessible to any novice:
There are reasonable
propagation conditions for long-distance and where bands;
Fully meet the phonetic
code, at least the international;
Be aware at least of the
main terms used in the English language;
It is indispensable to know
the RST system and correctly report the received signals;
Note the time and the right
way to go and receive the word;
Always register the
contacts using UTC or ZULU (GMT + 3 hours);
Maintain, at hand, the global list of prefixes (to
know which country is being contacted);
Always send the QSL card;
In the case of contest or
diploma, know its rules, filling its LOG;
There are two ways to start
a DX statement, calling general DX (CQ DX, CQ DX, CQ DX) or answering
/ contesting a call general DX;
It is perfectly possible to
maintain DX with several countries using only the Portuguese language.
Among the countries of South America, Central America and the
Caribbean, (except Brazil), the vast majority of countries speaking
the Spanish language. In the European continent, and Portugal, we'll
have some facility with hams from Spain and several Portuguese spread
across the continent, especially in France and Belgium. Already on the
African continent there are some Portuguese speaking countries such as
Angola, Azores, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Madeira. There
are even Spanish language countries such as: Balearic Islands, Canary
Islands, Ceuta and Melilla. The Asian continent can enumerate the
Macau and in Oceania, the East Timor;
Good propagation conditions
for long distance should be checked according to the band being used.
In the 160, 80 and 40 meters it usually happens overnight. In other HF
bands (30, 20, 17, 15, 12 and 10 meters) it can vary throughout the
day (twenty four hours), both in direction and in intensity.
Click here to see the
predictions of propagation. We believe that
the recommendations followed up on stakes in DX, National or
International Contests in Diplomas, QSL`s Special, etc., all will be
greatly helping to achieve the expected success in these exciting
Click : Propagation
Bulletins - assess the conditions to realize their DX
Bulletins - (NODXA-OPDX)
List of Prefix
( Reproduction of the above text is
authorized provided the holder is preserved and mentioned - Copyright - Marcus
Martins / PY4SM - PY2DD - ZW4SM )
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