Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service
Volunteer Protection Act of 1997
One Hundred Fifth Congress
United States of America
AT THE FIRST SESSION
Begun and held at the City of Washington on Tuesday,
the seventh day of January, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven
To provide certain protections to volunteers, nonprofit organizations, and governmental entities in
lawsuits based on the activities of volunteers.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the `Volunteer Protection Act of 1997'.
SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.
(a) FINDINGS- The Congress finds and declares that--
(1) the willingness of volunteers to offer their services is deterred by the potential for
liability actions against them;
(2) as a result, many nonprofit public and private organizations and governmental entities,
including voluntary associations, social service agencies, educational institutions, and other
civic programs, have been adversely affected by the withdrawal of volunteers from boards of
directors and service in other capacities;
(3) the contribution of these programs to their communities is thereby diminished, resulting in
fewer and higher cost programs than would be obtainable if volunteers were participating;
(4) because Federal funds are expended on useful and cost-effective social service programs,
many of which are national in scope, depend heavily on volunteer participation, and represent
some of the most successful public-private partnerships, protection of volunteerism through
clarification and limitation of the personal liability risks assumed by the volunteer in
connection with such participation is an appropriate subject for Federal legislation;
(5) services and goods provided by volunteers and nonprofit organizations would often otherwise
be provided by private entities that operate in interstate commerce;
(6) due to high liability costs and unwarranted litigation costs, volunteers and nonprofit
organizations face higher costs in purchasing insurance, through interstate insurance markets,
to cover their activities; and
(7) clarifying and limiting the liability risk assumed by volunteers is an appropriate subject
for Federal legislation because--
(A) of the national scope of the problems created by the legitimate fears of volunteers about
frivolous, arbitrary, or capricious lawsuits;
(B) the citizens of the United States depend on, and the Federal Government expends funds on,
and provides tax exemptions and other consideration to, numerous social programs that depend
on the services of volunteers;
(C) it is in the interest of the Federal Government to encourage the continued operation of
volunteer service organizations and contributions of volunteers because the Federal Government
lacks the capacity to carry out all of the services provided by such organizations and
(D)(i) liability reform for volunteers, will promote the free flow of goods and services,
lessen burdens on interstate commerce and uphold constitutionally protected due process
(ii) therefore, liability reform is an appropriate use of the powers contained in article 1,
section 8, clause 3 of the United States Constitution, and the fourteenth amendment to the
United States Constitution.
(b) PURPOSE- The purpose of this Act is to promote the interests of social service program
beneficiaries and taxpayers and to sustain the availability of programs, nonprofit organizations,
and governmental entities that depend on volunteer contributions by reforming the laws to provide
certain protections from liability abuses related to volunteers serving nonprofit organizations
and governmental entities.
SEC. 3. PREEMPTION AND ELECTION OF STATE NONAPPLICABILITY.
(a) PREEMPTION- This Act preempts the laws of any State to the extent that such laws are
inconsistent with this Act, except that this Act shall not preempt any State law that provides
additional protection from liability relating to volunteers or to any category of volunteers in
the performance of services for a nonprofit organization or governmental entity.
(b) ELECTION OF STATE REGARDING NONAPPLICABILITY- This Act shall not apply to any civil action
in a State court against a volunteer in which all parties are citizens of the State if such State
enacts a statute in accordance with State requirements for enacting legislation--
(1) citing the authority of this subsection;
(2) declaring the election of such State that this Act shall not apply, as of a date certain, to
such civil action in the State; and
(3) containing no other provisions.
SEC. 4. LIMITATION ON LIABILITY FOR VOLUNTEERS.
(a) LIABILITY PROTECTION FOR VOLUNTEERS- Except as provided in subsections (b) and (d), no
volunteer of a nonprofit organization or governmental entity shall be liable for harm caused by an
act or omission of the volunteer on behalf of the organization or entity if--
(1) the volunteer was acting within the scope of the volunteer's responsibilities in the
nonprofit organization or governmental entity at the time of the act or omission;
(2) if appropriate or required, the volunteer was properly licensed, certified, or authorized by
the appropriate authorities for the activities or practice in the State in which the harm
occurred, where the activities were or practice was undertaken within the scope of the
volunteer's responsibilities in the nonprofit organization or governmental entity;
(3) the harm was not caused by willful or criminal misconduct, gross negligence, reckless
misconduct, or a conscious, flagrant indifference to the rights or safety of the individual
harmed by the volunteer; and
(4) the harm was not caused by the volunteer operating a motor vehicle, vessel, aircraft, or
other vehicle for which the State requires the operator or the owner of the vehicle, craft, or
(A) possess an operator's license; or
(b) CONCERNING RESPONSIBILITY OF VOLUNTEERS TO ORGANIZATIONS AND ENTITIES- Nothing in this section
shall be construed to affect any civil action brought by any nonprofit organization or any
governmental entity against any volunteer of such organization or entity.
(c) NO EFFECT ON LIABILITY OF ORGANIZATION OR ENTITY- Nothing in this section shall be
construed to affect the liability of any nonprofit organization or governmental entity with
respect to harm caused to any person.
(d) EXCEPTIONS TO VOLUNTEER LIABILITY PROTECTION- If the laws of a State limit volunteer
liability subject to one or more of the following conditions, such conditions shall not be
construed as inconsistent with this section:
(1) A State law that requires a nonprofit organization or governmental entity to adhere to risk
management procedures, including mandatory training of volunteers.
(2) A State law that makes the organization or entity liable for the acts or omissions of its
volunteers to the same extent as an employer is liable for the acts or omissions of its
(3) A State law that makes a limitation of liability inapplicable if the civil action was
brought by an officer of a State or local government pursuant to State or local law.
(4) A State law that makes a limitation of liability applicable only if the nonprofit
organization or governmental entity provides a financially secure source of recovery for
individuals who suffer harm as a result of actions taken by a volunteer on behalf of the
organization or entity. A financially secure source of recovery may be an insurance policy
within specified limits, comparable coverage from a risk pooling mechanism, equivalent assets,
or alternative arrangements that satisfy the State that the organization or entity will be able
to pay for losses up to a specified amount. Separate standards for different types of liability
exposure may be specified.
(e) LIMITATION ON PUNITIVE DAMAGES BASED ON THE ACTIONS OF VOLUNTEERS-
(1) GENERAL RULE- Punitive damages may not be awarded against a volunteer in an action brought
for harm based on the action of a volunteer acting within the scope of the volunteer's
responsibilities to a nonprofit organization or governmental entity unless the claimant
establishes by clear and convincing evidence that the harm was proximately caused by an action
of such volunteer which constitutes willful or criminal misconduct, or a conscious, flagrant
indifference to the rights or safety of the individual harmed.
(2) CONSTRUCTION- Paragraph (1) does not create a cause of action for punitive damages and does
not preempt or supersede any Federal or State law to the extent that such law would further
limit the award of punitive damages.
(f) EXCEPTIONS TO LIMITATIONS ON LIABILITY-
(1) IN GENERAL- The limitations on the liability of a volunteer under this Act shall not apply
to any misconduct that--
(A) constitutes a crime of violence (as that term is defined in section 16 of title 18, United
States Code) or act of international terrorism (as that term is defined in section 2331 of
title 18) for which the defendant has been convicted in any court;
(B) constitutes a hate crime (as that term is used in the Hate Crime Statistics Act (28 U.S.C.
(C) involves a sexual offense, as defined by applicable State law, for which the defendant has
been convicted in any court;
(D) involves misconduct for which the defendant has been found to have violated a Federal or
State civil rights law; or
(E) where the defendant was under the influence (as determined pursuant to applicable State
law) of intoxicating alcohol or any drug at the time of the misconduct.
(2) RULE OF CONSTRUCTION- Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to effect subsection
(a)(3) or (e).
SEC. 5. LIABILITY FOR NONECONOMIC LOSS.
(a) GENERAL RULE- In any civil action against a volunteer, based on an action of a volunteer
acting within the scope of the volunteer's responsibilities to a nonprofit organization or
governmental entity, the liability of the volunteer for noneconomic loss shall be determined in
accordance with subsection (b).
(b) AMOUNT OF LIABILITY-
(1) IN GENERAL- Each defendant who is a volunteer, shall be liable only for the amount of
noneconomic loss allocated to that defendant in direct proportion to the percentage of
responsibility of that defendant (determined in accordance with paragraph (2)) for the harm to
the claimant with respect to which that defendant is liable. The court shall render a separate
judgment against each defendant in an amount determined pursuant to the preceding sentence.
(2) PERCENTAGE OF RESPONSIBILITY- For purposes of determining the amount of noneconomic loss
allocated to a defendant who is a volunteer under this section, the trier of fact shall
determine the percentage of responsibility of that defendant for the claimant's harm.
SEC. 6. DEFINITIONS.
For purposes of this Act:
(1) ECONOMIC LOSS- The term `economic loss' means any pecuniary loss resulting from harm
(including the loss of earnings or other benefits related to employment, medical expense loss,
replacement services loss, loss due to death, burial costs, and loss of business or employment
opportunities) to the extent recovery for such loss is allowed under applicable State law.
(2) HARM- The term `harm' includes physical, nonphysical, economic, and noneconomic losses.
(3) NONECONOMIC LOSSES- The term `noneconomic losses' means losses for physical and emotional
pain, suffering, inconvenience, physical impairment, mental anguish, disfigurement, loss of
enjoyment of life, loss of society and companionship, loss of consortium (other than loss of
domestic service), hedonic damages, injury to reputation and all other nonpecuniary losses of
any kind or nature.
(4) NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION- The term `nonprofit organization' means--
(A) any organization which is described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of
1986 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of such Code and which does not practice any
action which constitutes a hate crime referred to in subsection (b)(1) of the first section of
the Hate Crime Statistics Act (28 U.S.C. 534 note); or
(B) any not-for-profit organization which is organized and conducted for public benefit and
operated primarily for charitable, civic, educational, religious, welfare, or health purposes
and which does not practice any action which constitutes a hate crime referred to in
subsection (b)(1) of the first section of the Hate Crime Statistics Act (28 U.S.C. 534 note).
(5) STATE- The term `State' means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana
Islands, any other territory or possession of the United States, or any political subdivision of
any such State, territory, or possession.
(6) VOLUNTEER- The term `volunteer' means an individual performing services for a nonprofit
organization or a governmental entity who does not receive--
(A) compensation (other than reasonable reimbursement or allowance for expenses actually
(B) any other thing of value in lieu of compensation,
in excess of $500 per year, and such term includes a volunteer serving as a director, officer,
trustee, or direct service volunteer.
SEC. 7. EFFECTIVE DATE.
(a) IN GENERAL- This Act shall take effect 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act.
(b) APPLICATION- This Act applies to any claim for harm caused by an act or omission of a
volunteer where that claim is filed on or after the effective date of this Act but only if the
harm that is the subject of the claim or the conduct that caused such harm occurred after such
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Vice President of the United States and
President of the Senate.
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