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Disclaimer for:


Advertisements and javascript codes are added by the .com servers, not by me. You can disable javascript and block them with a firewall and edit your HOST file to block ads. Search the Internet for the "how to".

Everybody is free to link to or republish the information from my webpages without getting consent from me, the author. Providing a direct link to my webpage as the source would be appreciated!

The author of these webpages is making material available in efforts to advance understanding of scientific, political, democracy, and social issues. This website constitutes 'fair use' exemptions of copyrighted material as provided for in sections of the U.S. Copyright Law. The material on this website is distributed without profit to those who have an interest in receiving the included information for research, comment, criticism, news reporting, teaching, and educational purposes. The fair use of a copyrighted work for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

External links from this website are for research and information only.

The external links on this website does not constitute endorsement or approval by its author. The author is not responsible for the contents on any external link referenced at this website.

The author of this website has no affiliation, financial or otherwise, with third party websites.


Linking must fall under the First Amendment right of the U.S. Constitution. Hyperlinks are the engine of the Web, allowing rapid connections to be made between people and information. Creating hyperlinks without permission is the very essence of the way the World Wide Web operates. Without hyperlinks, the Web’s extraordinary ability to facilitate the rapid, global dissemination of information would be severely impaired.

The "developer" of the hyperlink in 1989 thinks that links are intrinsic to the fabric of the Web.

Hyperlinks enhance online news reporting. The rapid access to layers of supplementary information allows journalists to add depth and context to their stories, making them more meaningful and useful to readers. Links allow the journalist to direct readers to the journalist’s primary source material, lending credibility to the report and empowering the reader to investigate independently. Instead of merely summarizing the results of a complex scientific study, reporters often include a link to the research report or journal, allowing readers to make their own assessments and to scrutinize the reporter’s account. Links can take readers to research archives, past articles, government records, audio and video clips of newsworthy events, discussion groups, and more. Many of these sources are stored on servers in other states or countries or are not prominently featured on the Web and would be difficult to find without hyperlinks.

Linking cannot constitute direct copyright infringement because the computer server of the linking website does not copy or otherwise process the content of the linked-to site. Multiple linking cannot constitute contributory copyright infringement because (a) Internet users viewing of the material at issue is not infringing, (b) linking is capable of substantial noninfringing uses, and (c) multiple linking does not constitute substantial participation in any infringement where the linking website does not mention the fact that Internet users could, by following the links, find infringing material on another website.

You only have one type of linking on the Web and that is linking directly to web pages, so "deep linking" is an oxymoron. There exists ways of redirecting visitors coming from external sites to the homepage if a webmaster dislikes "deep links." Deep linking is not illegal when it is clear to whom the linked page belongs.

Links to front pages are an absurd curbing of the power of the Internet to allow users to bring together relevant ideas and manipulate them creatively to add intellectual value. Comparing and contrasting ideas online is done with the use of hyperlinks to precise pages, or even to points within those pages.

Hypertext links do not constitute copyright infringement because no copy is actually created in the process of linking when there is no deception in what is happening. Linking to a website is analogous to using a library's card index to get reference to particular items, but faster and more efficiently. Although deep links may cause legal problems for businesses when they contribute to confusion between the identities of commercial sites, it is not the link itself that is the problem. Rather, it is the appearance of confusion of sources that may be an issue in a commercial environment. Setting up links to someone else's website is not the same thing as republishing information because the linking site does not actually store the linked site's information; it just directs the user to that information.

Linking serves to bring in new users and increase traffic to the linked-to website.

Courts have refused to issue an injunction against linking to other websites which contain the copyright protected materials as such an order is overbroad and extremely burdensome. Links to other websites are the mainstay of the Internet and indispensable to its convenient access to the vast world of information. A website owner cannot be held responsible for all of the content of the sites to which it provides links.

Supreme Court cases have protected the First Amendment right of the press to publish not only "links" to confidential information, but also the information itself.

It is the website content that can be protected under copyright, not links to the website itself.

The bottom line is if you stop people from linking then the Web is no longer a Web. It would become a collection of isolated chunks of information. The Web is based on the concept of hyperlinking out to other sites. It has worked fine for all concerned until the big corporations started setting up their websites online.

Will the Internet remain a free source of information for the benefit of the people, or become a controlled presentation of branded content that benefits commercial interests?


Some history of the Internet before today's commercialization.

Fight Bad Laws that increase Censorship


Important Note:
All of my web pages are a rough draft because of quick updates, so there will be a few errors in spelling, grammar, and data. I will try to correct them in later updates. Costs prohibit a professionally proofread publication since my webpages are not produced for commercial use and profit.