The Phillips Code (part 1 of 3)
Transcribed by Joseph Hartmann K2AVJ
[ J.Hartmann's notes enclosed between brackets ]
----------------this is a work in progress --------------------
----------------the actual PHILLIPS CODE book is done ---------
----------------but I am uncertain about embedded TABS --------
----------------and I expect to change some of the ------------
----------------recollections of Stu at the end. --------------
----------------WA2FFY has given me some inputs ---------------
----------------which remain to be incorporated ---------------
[cover: brown print on buff background]
[reverse side of front cover,
rubber stamped in red ink: ]
National Telegraph Office
1149 Weber St.
Union, NJ 07083
[page -3: rest of book black print on white background]
P h i l l i p s C o d e
A THOUROUGHLY TESTED METHOD OF SHORT-
HAND ARRANGED FOR TELEGRAPHIC PUR-
POSES. AND CONTEMPLATING THE
RAPID TRANSMISSION OF PRESS
REPORTS; ALSO INTENDED
TO BE USED AS AN
E A S I L Y A C Q U I R E D M E T H O D
General Newspaper and Court
Walter P. Phillips
revised in 1975
Entered According to Act of Congress
WALTER P. PHILLIPS
Renewed January 8, 1907
TELEGRAPH AND TELPHONE AGE
[blank side of previous page]
I N T R O D U C T I O N
There has been a persistent demand for
a code book that contained not only the
Phillips, but various other codes and sig-
nals that were once widely used.
The necessity for codes and coding be-
came apparent with the earliest forms of
signalling, as only very limited intelligence
could be transmitted by the crude devices
of those days. When the electric telegraph
made possible the speedy transmission of
alphabets and numerals, coding was still
important to reduce line time and costs.
Research suggests that at one time,
commercial telegraphs and railroads had
numerical codes that contained at least
100 groupings. Few survived beyond the
turn of the century. The compilation in
this book represents the consensus of many
whose duties brought them into close con-
tact with this subject. It will be noted
that in some cases, more than one mean-
ing was assigned to a coding. The most
generally understood definition is printed
first, with secondary usage in parenthesis.
The Phillips Code is that of the last offi-
cial edition -- 1925 -- plus the Market
supplement of 1909 and a listing of some
codings which have been added.
I am indebted to J. Ralph Graham, Nick
Carter, George Secrist and Art Stewart,
long time press operators, for suggestions
and review of the general arrangement.
E. STUART DAVIS (DV)
[page 0: a copy of an old advertisement]
Q U A L I T Y F I R S T
[picture of a sounder and key on a wooden base]
[ with the base marked "MARCONI" ]
Only BUNNELL Keys should be used
in sending Phillips' Code or any other Code.
There is no other key in same class. Perfect
workmanship with iridium hardened, plat-
inum points is the reason for their easy
working and the beautiful, clean-cut signals
Special prices to code users on application.
[Picture of ]
["Hudson's ] H U D S O N
[Word Register" ] W O R D C O U N T E R
[ Patented ]
[a pointer over 360 ] For counting number of
[degrees with "50" at] words written on a typewriter.
[the top, and major ] Furnished with attachments
[divisions of 10, 20 ] for applying it to all the stand-
[30, and 40, going ] makes of machines.
[cw, evenly spaced ] On ordering be sure to
[in increments of ] specify make and model of
[one unit ] machine on which it is to be
Directions for attaching ac-
company each machine.
SPECIAL NET PRICE $3.00
Send for catalog and circular of C.Q.A. Relays.
J. H. B U N N E L L & C O. Inc.
PARK PLACE, near Woolworth Bldg.
W A L T E R P O L K P H I L L I P S
Born in Grafton, Massachusetts, in 1846,
Walter Phillips entered upon a career in com-
munications as a messenger for the American
Telegraph Company at its Providence, Rhode
Island office in 1861. Quickly mastering the
art of Morse telegraphy, he became one of the
fastest operators of the time. In 1864 he was
promoted to the position of "report opr." copy-
ing news despatches from the Associated Press.
He set a new speed recond by copying 2731
words in one hour. This feat won an award
of a solid gold pen from Prof. Samuel F. B.
Morse. Phillips joined the Associated Press in
1867 and was made manager of its Washington
Bureau in 1868. Ever alert to the value of
speed in news transmission, he persuaded the
AP in 1875 to establish the nation's first leased
wire, for press service, linking the cities of
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Wash-
ington. Determined to make the AP the fast-
est news nervice in the country, he revised the
existing abbreviations and codes used in the
transmission of press. in 1879 he published the
first edition of the "Phillips code" -- a system
so fundamentally sound in principle and so
easy to learn that it quickly became the stand-
ard code used throughout the North American
As an inventor, he patented an improved
form of hand key that was widely acclaimed
by operators -- and shortly thereafter, in con-
junction with R. H. Weiny, invented a single
line repeater knows as the Weiny-Phillips
that remained in service as long as Morse
wires were in use. He was joint inventor of
the first successful semi-automatic key: the
"Autoplex," patented in 1902 by Horace G.
In 1898, Walter Phillips was appointed vice
president and general manager of the United
Press, and he retired in 1918 as one of the
most highly respected gentlemen ever to
grace the telegraphic profession.
F O R E W A R D
The growth of the language necessitates, at
intervals, the elimination form the Phillips
codethose contractions that have become
practically obsolete, and providing code for
the newer words, or those that, during recent
years, have become common in press reports.
Revision of the code according to the root
of the word involved was desired. This idea
had to be abandoned, however, because the ar-
bitrary representations of words and phrases
by a combination of letters produces anoma-
lous formations, which, being once incorpor-
ated, cannot afterward be easily dropped or
reformed. And, again, the same contraction
was frequently found to fit different words:
hence deviation from the desired basis of for-
mation was necessary, in order that the more
important words might be included in the
Among the more important changes are:
Abr- Abrogate. Cft- Confident.
Acq- Acquaint. Cfu- Confuse.
Admn- Admission. Cnc- Concern.
Adrn- Administration. Cop- Cheif of Police.
Ahd- Apprehend. Cul - Culminate.
Ape- Appreciate. Cy- Copy.
Apkn- Application. Dcr- December.
Apln- Appelation. Dec- Decrease.
Aq- Acquire. Def- Defeat.
Aqt- Acquit. Deft- Definite.
Aqu- Acute. Dfi- Deficient.
Aqw- Acquiesce. Dpo- Dispose.
Asr- Assert. Efy- Efficiency.
Atv- Attentive. Ek- Economy.
Atrv- Attractive. Elm- Eliminate.
Avb- Available. Elq- Eloquent.
Avob- Avoidable. Elt- Element.
Bri- Brilliant. Eq- Enquire.
Ccu-Conclude. Eql- Equal.
Hag- Haggle. Rept- Repeat.
Hz- Hazard. Req- Request.
Igo- In consequence of. Rlav- Relative.
Kf- Confer. Rlv- Relieve.
Kft- Conflict. Rpt- Represent.
Kpr- Conspire. Rpv- Representative.
Kpt- Compete. Rq- Require
Lx- Pounds sterling. Rsd- Reside.
Oac- On account of. Rsg- Resign.
Ot- Owing to. Rsl- Resolve.
Pa- Pennsylvania Sac- Senate Committee.
Pcu- Preclude. Scf- Sacrifice.
Pkg-Packing. Sovy- Soverignty.
Pkj- Package. Soy- Society.
Pku- Peculiar. Spk- Spoke.
Pmnt- Prominent. Spn- Suspicion.
Pmt- Permit. Spq- speak.
Png- Pending. Thu- The house.
Px- Price. Wam- Ways and means.
Intelligent use of the code is the desideratum
for both sender and receiver; and, in this con-
nection, some tried observations are submitted.
1. To send code at top speed defeats its
purpose. Indeed, mechanical ability seems a neg-
ligible factor in moving the report, for the mod-
erately slow sender, of even temper, and precise
signals, exites no anger, and, therefore, pro-
vakes no breaking.
2. Code should be well spaced, so that the
receiver is required to make no effort in its
translation. Where the receiver is forced to solve
a puzzle in a way of improper or badly used
code, the context of the story is lost and a
break usually follows.
3. Seldom, if ever, should code be used at
the beginning of a sentence; nor should code be
used where the coded word or words precede
a group of figures.
4. Code that in itself makes a good English
word should not be used in any sentence where
the word coded would fit into the sense.
5. Where two consecutive words in a sen-
tence belong to separate ideas, they should not
be contracted into a single combination; e.g.,
"When the vacancy occurred and the question
of filling it was put to him, the governor."
etc.; "And the only way to stop it was for the
employers and employes to co-operate"; " * * *
the nature of it is not known."
6. The sign 'cx" should be freely used, espe-
cially for such proper names as also ore com-
mon English words: "the Glass amendment";
"the Wood report"; and preceding titles inde-
terminable, as such, from the matter just pre-
ceding: "and Immigration Inspectors John Doe
and Richard Roe." The signals "i5" and "e5"
shoulsd no less be neglected.
7. Following proper names a contraction some-
times is bad: "Representative Henry of the Owen
committee"; "Judge Dayton in the Hitchman
Coal company case." And, occasionally, a proper
name is best coded: "Congressman Hendry D.
8. Possessives, when not clearly indicated by
the context, should be specified: "The account-
ants report." Here, it isn't clear whether "ac-
countants" is nominative plural, possessive sin-
gular, or possessive plural.
9. When the receiver breaks on a coded word,
the sender should spell it out, and then repeat
10. Errors due to an oversight on the part
of the sender often are better corrected in a
note at the end of the item. Many typewriters
are used without ribbons, and it is difficult for
the receiver to locate the place for the correction.
11. Difficult words and proper names should
be sent very slowly, without repetition. Paradox-
ical as it is, it isn't the time one makes, but
the time one loses that really counts on any
For timely and thoughtful suggestions, I am
grateful to many gentlemen too numerous for
brief specification. Representatives of the Asso-
ciated Press, Laffan News Bureau, Hearst News
Service, and the United Press have been con-
sulted and their advice solicited. A am specially
indebted to Mr. Milton Gorges, of the Chicago
Associated Press, who, besides submitting many
new words and changes, has been kind enough
to criticize all changes and additions anent which
there was an difference of opinion. Others
whose help has been invaluable are Messrs. Frank
H. Trickle, New York, George R. Allen, San
Francisco, and C. J. King, Atlanta.
In conclusion, I have sought to please no one,
but merely to adopt the consensus of opinion
of those whose years in the press service best
qualify them to pass on the fitness of the changes
and additions made in the revision. I therefore
dismiss the work with a feeling that I have done
the best I know how.
E. E. Bruckner.
Spokane, January 1, 1914.
T H E P H I L L I P S C O D E
The Morse alphobet, which is employed to rep-
resent the sounds used in sten-telegraphy, is
composed entirely of linear characters formed
of dots and dashes, and by combinations of the two.
The letters c, o, r, y, and z, and the symbol
"&" are composed of dots and spaces. There
are no spaces in any of the letters composed of
dashes. The alphabet is as follows:
A . _ O . .
B _ . . . P . . . . .
C . . . Q . . _ .
D _ . . R . . .
E . S . . .
F . - . T _
G _ _ . U . . _
H . . . . V . . . _
I . . W . _ _
J _ . _ . X . _ . .
K _ . _ Y . . . .
L ____ [long dash] Z . . . .
M _ _
N _ .
The figures are as follows:
1 . _ _ . 6 . . . . . .
2 . . _ . . 7 - - . .
3 . . . _ . 8 _ . . . .
4 . . . . _ 9 _ . . _
5 _ _ _ 0 ___ [long dash]
The difference between the Morse and
Universal codes are shown in the following list.
C . . . _ . _ .
F . _ . . . _ .
J _ . _ . . _ _ _
L ___[long dash] . _ . .
O . . _ _ _
P . . . . . . _ _ .
Q . . _ . _ _ . _
R . . . . _ .
X . _ . . _ . . _
Y . . . . _ . _ _
Z . . . . _ _ . .
1 . _ _ . . _ _ _ _
2 . . _ . . . . _ _ _
3 . . . _ . . . . _ _
5 _ _ _ . . . . .
6 . . . . . . _ . . . .
7 _ _ . . _ _ . . .
8 _. . . . _ _ _ . .
9 _ . . _ _ _ _ _ .
0 ___ [long dash] _ _ _ _ _
The punctuation marks used as a part of this
system are as follows:
Comma- Dot, dash, dot, dash.
Interrogation point- Dash, two dots, dash, dot
Capital letter- Cx.
Small letter- 15. (. . _ _ _)
Shilling mark- Ut.
Pounds sterling- Lx.
Exclamation point- Three dashes, dot.
Dollar mark- Sx.
Colon dash- Kx.
Not code-E5. (. _ _ _)
Parenthesis- Pn stands for first and Py for
the second Parenthesis mark.
Quotation marks- Qn stands for first and Qj
for the second quotation mark.
Quotation marks within a quotation- Qx and Qy.
Period- Two dots, two dashes, two dots.
Paragraph mark- Four dashes.
Underline- Ux stands for first and Uj for the
second underline signal.
Colon followed by a quotation- Kq.
The punctuation marks in the Universal Cod
are as follows:
Period- Two dots, space, two dots, space, two dots.
Colon- Three dashes, three dots.
Semi-colon- Dash dot, dash dot, dash dot.
Comma- Dot dash, dot dash, dot dash.
Exclamation- Two dashes, two dots, two dashes.
Interrogation- Two dots, two dashes, two dots.
Hyphen- Dash, four dots, dash,
Apostrophe- Dot, four dashes, dot.
Fractions in the Phillips and Morse codes are
sent by inserting the letter e between the numer-
ator and denominator, thus: Three-sixteenths-
3 . 16.
Owing to the fact that three ciphers when quick-
ly transwmitted bear a striking resemblance to a
figure 5, it will always be better to use tnd for
thousand and myn for million when thousands or
millions are expressed after the first, second, or
third figures by ciphers exclusively, thus: 10,000
-10 tnd; 248,000,000- 248 myns.
Hnd may also be used to advantage sometimes
to express hundreds, thus: 400- 4 hnd; 500,000
-5 hnd tnd; 300,000,000- 3 hnd myn.
Decimals should be sent by inserting the word
"dot." thus: 0.34- 0 dot 34; 89.92- 89 dot 92.
When an omission occurs in the copy, and the
fact is shown by the presence of asterisks, the
letter x several times repeated will indicate that
asterisks are to be inserted in the copy to be sent
out, thus: And this has been one of the results.
* * * * * * * * * Who shall account for such
corruption- And this has been one of the results.
x x x x x x Who shall, etc.
In sending poetry or one or more lines of verse,
a paragraph mark (_ _ _ _) should be used at
the end of each line, thus:
The gentleman on the other side, as it seems
to me, takes a superficial view of what has been
developed, and manifests a disposition either to
defend these obvious irregularities or content him-
self with what appears on the surface. Unless he
corrects his methods, I fancy the poet's words,
On the primrose on the river's brim _ _ _ _
A yellow primrose was to him _ _ _ _
And nothing more Qj _ _ _ _
will be peculiarly applicable to my credulous col-
league in the near future, and he will discover
that he has missed an opportunity to render a
great service to the cause of common honesty.
Beginners, both senders and receivers, should
commit all of the foregoing to memory before at-
tempting to send the cod.
Operators essaying to learn to send the accom-
panying system of codification will achieve that
object with comparative ease by beginning, and
continuing, methodically. They should first com-
mit to memory the meaning conveyed by the single
letters, as follows:
B- B. P- Per.
C- See. Q- On the.
D- In the, or pence. R- Are.
F- Of the. T- the.
G- From the. U- You.
H- Has. V- Of which.
J- By which. W- With.
K- Out of the. X- In which.
M- More. Y- Year.
N- Not. Z- From which.
Also a figure 4 for "where," a figure 5 for
"that the," and a figure 7 for "that is." These
figures are expressed, as will be seen further on,
thus: Fr- four; fv- five; sv- seven. They should
be so sent whenever they appear alone. Occur-
ing groups, they may be sent in the usual
The next step for the beginner is to learn the
meaning conveyed by the two-letter contractions,
among the more important of which are the fol-
Ab- About. Ar- Answer.
Ac- And company. Au- Author.
Ad- Adopted. Av- Average.
Af- After. Aw- At which.
Aj- Adjust. Ax- Ask.
Ak- Acknowledge. Ay- Any.
Ao- At once. Az- Applause.
Ap- Appropriate. Bi- By.
Aq- Acquire. Bc- Because.
O- of. Bd- Board.
Bf- Before. Dq- Discover.
Bg- Being. Dr- Doctor.
Bh- Both. Ds- Discuss.
Bj- Bound. Dt- Do not.
Bk- Break. Du-Duty.
Bl- Bill. Dv- Divide.
Bn- Been. Dw- Draw.
Bo- Baltimore. Dx- Dash.
Bp- Bishop. Dz- Does.
Bq- Bequeath. Ea- Each.
Br- British. Ec- Ecclesiastic.
Bs- Best. Ed- Editor.
Bt- But. Ef- Effect.
Bu- Bushel. Eg- England.
Bv- Believe. Eh- Either.
Bw- Be with. Ej- Eject.
Bx- Bracket . Ek- Economy.
Bz- Business. El- Elect.
Ca- Came. Em- Embarrass.
Cb- Celebrate. En- Enthusiasm.
Cd- Could. Ep- Epoch.
Cf- Chief. Eq- Enquire.
Cg- Seeing. Er- Error.
Ch- Chicago. Es- And.
Cj- Coroner's jury. Eu- Europe.
Ck- Check. Ev- Ever.
Cm- Come. Ey- Every.
Cn- Can. Fa- Fail.
Co- County. Fb- Of the bill.
Cp- Constantinople. Fc- Fiscal.
Cq- Correct. Fd- Find.
Cr- Care. Fg- Following.
Cs- Case. Fh- Forth.
Ct- Connect. Fi- Fire.
Cu- Current. Fj- Found.
Cv- Cover. Fk- Fluctuate.
Cx- Capital letter. Fl- Feel.
Cy- Copy. Fm- From.
Db- Debate. Fn- Fifteen.
Dc- District of Columbia Fo- For.
Dd- Did. Fp- Philanthropist.
Df- Differ. Fq- Frequent.
Dg- Doing. Fr- Four.
Di- Direct. Fs- First.
Dk- Descibe. Ft- For the.
Dl- Deliver. Fu- Few.
Dm- Demand. Fv- Five.
Dp- Depart. Fw- Follow.
Fx- Fort. Ic- In connection.
Fz- Freeze. Id- Introduce.
Ga- Gave. Ig- Indigent.
Gb- Great Britian. Ih- It has.
Gc- Grace. Ij- Injure.
Gd- Good. Ik- Instantly killed.
Gf- Gulf. Im- Immediately.
Gg- Going. Io- In order.
Gh- Gather. Ip- Improve.
Gi- Gigantic. Iq- Inquire.
Gj- Grand jury. Ir- Irregular.
Gk- Greek. Iv- In view.
Gl- Girl. Iw- It was.
Gm- Gentlemen. Ix- It is.
Gn- Gone. Jb- Jubilee.
Gp- Group. Jf- Justify.
Gq- Geology. Jg- Judge.
Gr- Ground. Jl- Jail.
Gs- Guess. Jn- Join.
Gt- Great. Jp- Japan.
Gu- Guard. Jr- Junior.
Gv- Give. Js- Just.
Gw- Grow. Jt- Joint.
Gx- Great excitement. Ju- Jury.
Gy- Guilty. Jz- Juarez.
Gz- Gazette. Kb- Contribute.
Hb- Has been. Kc- Concentrate.
Hc- Habeas corpus. Kd- Kind.
Hd- Had. Kf- Confer.
Hf- Half. Kg- King.
Hg- Having. Ki- Kill.
Hh- Has had. Kj- Complain.
Hi- High. Kl- Collect.
Hk- Hook. Km- Communicate.
Hl- Hell. Kn- Known.
Hm- Him. Kp- Keep.
Hn- Has not. Kr- Color.
Ho- Hold. Ks- Conserve.
Hp- Hope. Kt- Contain.
Hr- Here. Ku- Continue.
Hs- His. Kv- Convert.
Ht- Has the. Kw- Know.
Hu- House. Kz- Consult.
Hv- Have. La- Louisiana.
Hw- How. Ld- London.
Hy- Henry. Lf- Life.
Hz- Hazard. Lg- Long.
Ia- Iowa. Lk- Like.
Lm- Low middling. Og- Organize.
Ln- Loan. Oh- Ohio.
Lp- Liverpool. Oj- Object.
Lq- Liquor. Om- Omit.
Lr- Lower. Op- Opportunity.
Lt- Lieutenant. Oq- Occupy.
Lu- Lieu. Os- Oppose.
Lv- Leave. Ot- Owing to.
Lx- Pounds sterling. Ow- On which.
Md- Made. Oz- ounce.
Mf- Manufacture. Pa- Pennsylvanio.
Mg- Manage. Pb- Probable.
Mh- Much. Pc- Per cent.
Mk- Make. Pd- Paid.
Ml- Mail. Pe- Principle.
Mm- Mid-meridian Pf- Prefer.
(midnight) Pg- Progress.
Mo- Month. Ph- Perhapse.
Mr- Mister. Pj- Prejudice.
Ms- Most. Pk- Particular.
Mu- Murder. Pm- Postmaster.
Mv- Move. Po- Post-office.
Mw- Meanwhile. Pp- Postpone.
Mx- Mix. Pq- Postpone.
Na- Name. Pr- President.
Nb- Not be. Ps- Pass.
Nc- North Carolina. Pt- Present.
Nd- Need. Pu- Public.
Ne- New England. Pv- Priviege.
Nf- Notify. Pw- Power.
Ng- Negotiate. Px- Price.
Nh- New Hampshire. Pz- Prize.
Ni- Night. Qa- Qualify.
Nj- New Jersey Qb- On the bill.
Nl- Natural. Qc- Concur.
Nm- Nominate Qm- Quartermaster.
No- No, and New Or- Qp- On the part of.
leans, La. Qr- Quarter.
Nr- Near. Qu- Quiet.
Nt- North. Ra- Raise.
Nv- Never. Rb- Rob.
Nx- Next. Rc- Receive.
Ny- New York. Rd- Read.
Nz- New Zealand. Rf- Refer.
Oa- Of a. Rg- Regular.
Ob- Obtain. Rh- Reach.
Oc- O'clock. Ri- Rhode Island.
Od- Order. Rj- Reject.
Rk- Recover. Tn- Then.
Rl- Real. Tp- Transport.
Rm- Remain. Tq- The question.
Rn- Reason. Tr- There.
Ro- Rose. Ts- This.
Rp- Report. Tt- That.
Rq- Require. Tw- To-morrow.
Rr- Railroad. Tx- This is.
Rs- Resolve. Ty- They.
Rt- Are the. Tz- These.
Ru- Are you. Uc- You see.
Rv- Remove. Uf- Unfortunate.
Rw- Are with. Uk- Understand.
Rx- Recommend. Ul- Usual.
Ry- Railway. Um- Unanimous.
Rz- Result. Un- Until.
Sa- Senate. Uq- Upon the.
Sb- Subsequent. Ur- Your.
Sc- South Carolina. Us- United States.
Sd- Should. Uv- Universe.
Sf- Satisfy. Vt- Vermont.
Sg- Signify. Va- Virginia.
Sh- Such. Vb- Valuable.
Sj- Subject. Vf- Verify.
Sk- Success. Vk- Victor.
Sl- Sail. Vm- Vehement.
Sm- Some. Vo- Vote.
Sn- Soon. Vp- Vice-president.
Sp- Ship. Vr- Virtue.
Sq- Separate. Vu- View.
Sr- Secure. Vx- Violate.
Ss- Steamship. Vy- Very.
St- Street. Vz- Venezuela.
Su- Sure. Wa- Way.
Sv- Seven. Wb- Will be.
Sw- Swear. Wc- Welcome.
Sx- Dollar mark. Wd- Would.
Sz- Sieze. Wg- Wrong.
Tb- The bill. Wh- Which.
Td- Treasury Depart- Wi- Will.
ment. Wj- Wound.
Tf- The followig. Wk- Week.
Tg- Thing. Wl- Well.
Th- Those. Wm- William.
Ti- Time. Wn- When.
Tj- The jury. Wo- Who.
Tk- Take. Wp- Weep.
Tm- Them. Wq- Warrant.
Wr- Were. Xm- Extreme.
Ws- Was. Xn- Constitution.
Wt- What. Xo- Exonerate.
Wv- Waive. Xp- Expense.
Ww- With which. Xr- Exercise.
Wx- Wait. Xs- Exist.
Wy- Why. Xt- Extent.
Xb- Exorbitant. Xu- Exclude.
Xc- Excite. Ya- Yesterday.
Id- Exceed. Yf- Yellow fever.
Xg- Legislate. Za- Sea.
Xh- Exhaust. Zc- Section.
Xj- Explain. Zd- Said.
Xk- Execute. Zm- Seem.
Xl- Excel. Zn- Seen.
Having familiarized himself with the foregoing,
the operator will then find it to his advantage to
apply himself to memorizing the remainder of the
two-letter, and as many as possible of the three-
letter contractions. Amongy the latter, it will be
observed, the principal words in daily use (and
which are given, in some cases, in their briefest
form in the two-letter contractions above) are
traced in most of their numerous terminations.
Thus, for example, we have ak for "acknowledge,"
akd for "acknowledged", akg for "ackknowledging,"
etc. The principal illustrated by this word will be
found to underlie the whole system, deviation
from the rule only occurring when the peculiar-
ities of the Morse alphabet will not permit of
following the law, or where the addition of ', d,
g, or m would make a stem spell some word
which would fit in, without disturbing the con-
text, in the place where the word intended to be
conveyed ought to go. Wherever the author has
foreseen, or experience in working the system has
shown, that a strict adherunce to the rule would
involve the receiver in perplexity, he has departed
therefrom, but in no other cases.
In the very beginning of their attempts to use
the code, sending operators should first master the
single letters and as many of the double and
three-letter ones as possible. Perfect confidence
and ease will come with practice. In the mean-
time the operator should apply himself to learn-
inge the contractions under the various letters-
a few at a time- using them as much as possible
as he proceeds with his practice. A few weeks'
experience will serve to make the whole plan of
working very plain and clear, if a moderate
amount of thought and attention is given to the
foregoing hints, and to memorizing a few of the
contractions every day.
The sending operator should always say "bk"
when, from any cause, he breaks down in the
middle of a word, or interrupts himself. This
signal is easily recognized, and is of the greatest
possible assistance to the receiving operator.
Ab- About. Adsg- Absenting.
Abb- Abbreviate. Abt- About the.
Abbd- Abbreviated. Abty- Ability.
Addg- Abbreviating. Abu- Abundant.
Abbn- Abbreviation. Aduc- Abundance.
Abc- Absence. Abuy- Abundantly.
Abd- Aboard. Abv- Above.
Adg- Abiding. Aby- Albany.
Abh- Abolish. Ac- And Company.
Abhd-Abolished. Aca- Academy.
Abhg- Abolishing. Acal- Academical.
Abhn- Abolition. Acan- Academician.
Abi- Abide. Acb- Acceptable.
Abj- Abject. Acc- Account.
Abjy- Abjectly. Accd- Accounted.
Abm- Abominate. Accg- Accounting.
Abmd- Abominated. Acct- Accountant.
Abmg- Abominating. Acd- Accord.
Abml- Abominable. Acdd- Accorded. ---*
Abmn- Abominatiion Acg- According.
Abn- Abandon. Acgy- Accordingly.
Abnd- Abandoned. Ach- Achieve.
Abng- Abandoning. Achd- Achieved.
Abnm- Abandonment. Achg- Achieving.
Abp- Abrupt. Achm- Achievement.
Abpns- Abruptness. Acm- Accumulate.
Abpy- Abruptly. Acmg- Accumulating.
Abq- Absolute. Acmp- Accompany.
Abqy - Absolutely. Acmpd- Accompanied.
Abr- Abrogate. Acmpg- Accompanying.
Abrd- Abrogated. Acn- Accumulation.
Abrg- Abrogating. Aco- Accomodate.
Abrn- Abrogation. Acod- Accomodated.
Abrv- Abrogative. Acog- Accomodating.
Abs- Absent. Acom- Accomodation.
Absd- Absented. Acp- Accept.
Abse- Absentee. Acpc- Acceptance.
---* For addition, see page 64
Acpd- Accepted. Adl- Admiral.
Acpg- Accepting. Adm- Admit.
Acph- Accomplish. Admc- Admittance.
Acphd- Accomplished. Admd- Admitted.
Acphg- Accomplishing. Admg- Admitting.
Acphm- Accomplish Admn- Admission.
ment Adms- Admits.
Acq- Acquaint. Adn- Addition.
Acqd- Acquainted. Adnl- Additional.
Acqg- Acquainting. Adp- Adopt.
Acqs- Acquaints. Adpn- Adoption.
Acr- Accurate. Adq- Adequate.
Acrly- Accurately. Adqy- Adequately.
Acstm- Accustom. Adr- Administer.
Acstmd- Accustomed. Adrd- Administered.
Actl- Actual. Adrg- Administering.
Actly- Actually. Adrn- Administration.
Actn- Action. Adrr- Administrator.
Actu- Actuate. Adrv- Administrative.
Actud- Actuated. Adrx- Administratrix.
Actug- Actuating. Ads- Address.
Acu- Accuse. Adsd- Addressed.
Acud- Accused. Adsg- Addressing.
Acug- Accusing. Adss- Addresses.
Acun- Accusation. Adt- Amendment.
Acup- Acted upon. Adts- Amendments.
Acur- Accuser. Adu- Aduce.
Acv- Active. Adud- Aduced.
Acvs- Activities. Adug- Adducing.
Acvly- Actively. Adus- Adduces.
Acvty- Activity. Adv- Advertise
Acx- Across. Advc- Advance.
Acy- Accuracy. Advcd- Advanced.
Ad- Adopted. Advcg- Advancing.
Adc- Advice. Advcm- Advancement.
Adcs- Advices. Adz- Advise.
Adh- Adhere. Adzd- Advised.
Adhc- Adherence. Adzg- Advising.
Adhd- Adhered. Adzs- Advises.
Adhg- Adhering. Aen- Aeronaut.
Adht- Adherent. Aep- Aeroplane.
Adj- Adqourn. Af- After.
Adjd- Adjourned. Afa- Affair.
Adjg- Adjourning. Afc- Affect.
Adjm- Adjournment. Afed- Affected.
Afcg- Affecting. Agrg- Agreeing.
Afcn- Affection. Ags- Agents.
Afcny- Affectionately. Agt- Agreed to.
Afcs- Affects. Agu- Argue.
Afd- Afford. Agud- Argued.
Addd- Afforded. Agug- Arguing.
Afg- Affording. Agum- Argument.
Afj- Affidavit. Agup- Argeed upon.
Afjs- Affidavits. Agv- Aggressive.
Afl- Afflict. Agy- Agency.
Afld- Afflicted. Ahd- Apprehend.
Aflg- Afflicting. Ahdd- Aprehended.
Afln- Affliction. Ahg- Apprehending.
Afls- Afflicts. Ahn- Apprehension.
Afm- Affirm. Ahv- Apprehensive.
Afmd- Affirmed. Aj- Adjust.
Afmg- Affirming. Aja- Adjacent.
Afmn- Affirmation. Ajd- Adjusted.
Afn- Afternoon. Ajg- Adjusting.
Afo- Aforesaid. Ajm- Adjustment.
Afol- American Fed- Ajn- Adjoin.
eration of Labor. Ajnd- Adjoined.
Afr- Affray. Ajng- Adjoining.
Afv- Affirmative. Ajs- Adjusts.
Afw- Afterward. Ajt- Adjutant.
Afx- Affix. Ajts- Adjutants.
Afxd- Affixed. Ak- Acknowledge.
Afxg- Affixing. Akc- Access.
Ag- Agent. Akcy- Accessory.
Aga- Against. Akd- Acknowledged.
Agb- Agreeable. Akg- Acknowledging.
Agc- Agriculture. Akm- Acknowledgment.
Agd- Agreed. Aks- Acknowledges.
Agg- Aggregate. Akt- Accident.
Aggd- Aggregated. Aktl- Accidental.
Aggg- Aggregating. Aktly- Accidentally.
Aggn- Aggregation. Akts- Accidents.
Agi- Agitate. Ala- Alabama.
Agid- Agitated. Alb- Alberta.
Agig- Agitating. Alc- Alcohol.
Agiv- Agitation. Ald- Aldermen.
Agir- Agitator. Aldm- Alderman.
Agl- Agricultural. Alg- Along.
Aglst- Agriculturist. Ali- Allv.
Agm- Agreement. Alid- Allied.
Agms- Agreements. Alis- Allies.
Agn- Again. Ali- Allege.
Agr- Agree. Aljd- Alleged.
Aljg- Alleging. Amtd- Amounted.
Aljn- Allegation. Amtg- Amounting.
Aljnc- Allegiance. Amts- Amounts.
Alk- Alike. Amu- Amuse.
Alm- Alarm. Amud- Amused.
Almd- Alarmed. Amug- Amusing.
Aln- Altercation. Amun- Ammunition.
Alnc- Alliance. Amx- Ambitious.
Alns- Altercations. Amxy- Ambitiously.
Alr- Already. Amz- Amaze.
Alt- Alternate. Amzd- Amazed.
Altd- Alternated. Amzg- Amazing.
Altg- Alternating. Amzm- Amazement.
Alty- Alternately. Amzy- Amazingly.
Alu- Allude. Anc- Announce.
Alud- Alluded. Ancd- Announced.
Alug- Alluding. Ancg- Announcing.
Alun- Allusion. Ancm- Announce-
Alv- Alternative. ment.
Alw- Always. Ancs- Announces.
Ama- America. Ang- Antagonist.
Amal- Amalgamated. Angm- Antagonism.
Amb- Ambition. Angs- Antagonists.
Ambs- Ambitions. Angz- Antagonize.
Amd- Amend. Angzd- Antagonized.
Amdd- Amended. Angzg- Antagonizing.
Amdg- Amending. Ank- Anarchist.
Amds- Amends. Anky- Anarchy.
Amdy- Amendatory. Anl- Anuual.
Amg- Among. Anly- Annually.
Amgst- Amongst. Anm- Animal.
Ami- Amicable. Anms- Animals.
Amily- Amicably. Anr- Another.
Amk- Amuck. Ant- Anticipate.
Amn- American. Antd- Anticipated.
Amns- Americans. Antg- Anticipating.
Amp- Ample. Antn- Anticipation.
Ampy- Amply. Anv- Anniversary.
Ampf- Amplify. Anx- Anxious.
Ampfd- Amplified. Anxty- Anxiety.
Ampfg- Amplifying. Anxy- Anxiously.
Ampfn- Amplification. Ao- At once.
Amr- Ambassador. Ap- Appropriate.
Amrl- Ambassadorial. Apa- Aport.
Amrsp- Ambassador- Apam- Apartment.
ship. Apoms- Apartments.
Amt- Amount. Apc- Appreciate.
Apcd- Appreciated. Aqn- Acquisition.
Apcg- Appreciating. Aqs- Acquires.
Apcn- Appreciation. Aql- Acquirable.
Apcv- Appreciative. Aqt- Acquit.
Apd- Appropriated. Aqtd- Acquitted.
Apg- Appropriating. Aqtg- Acquitting.
Aph- Approach. Aqtl- Acquittal.
Aphd- Approached. Aqts- Acquits
Aphg- Approaching. Aqu- Acute.
Aphs- Approaches. Aqw- Acquiesce.
Api- Apiece. Aqwc- Aquiescence.
Apkn- Application. Aqwd- Acquiesed.
Apl- Appeal. Aqwg- Acquiescing.
Aplg- Appealing. Aqy- Acutely.
Aplg- Appealing. Aqy- Acutely.
Apln- Appelation. Ar- Answer.
Apls- Appeals. Ara- Arrange.
Aplt- Appelant. Arad- Arranged.
Apm- Appointment. Arag- Arranging.
Apms- Appointments. Aram- Arrangement.
Apn- Appropriation. Arb- Arbitrate.
Apns- Appropriations. Arbd- Arbitrated.
App- Appoint. Arbg- Arbitrating.
Appd- Appointed. Arbm- Arbitrament.
Appg- Appointing. Arbp- Archbishop.
Apr- Appear. Arbr- Arbitrator.
Aprc- Appearance. Arby- Arbitrarily.
Arpd- Appeared. Ard- Answered.
Aprg- Appearing. Arg- Answering.
Aps- Appropriates. Ark- Arkansas ---*
Apt- Apporent. Arl- Artillery.
Apty- Apporently. Arn- Arbitration.
Apv- Approve. Aro- Arose.
Apvd- Approved. Arr- Arrest.
Apvg- Approving. Arrd- Arrested.
Apvl- Approval. Arrg- Arresting.
Apx- Approximate. Ars- Answers.
Apxd- Approximated. Arv- Arrive.
Apxg- Approximating. Arvd- Arrived.
Apxn- Approximation. Arvg- Arriving.
Apxs- Approximates. Arvl- Arrival.
Apxy- Approximately. Ary- Arbitrary.
Apy- Appropriately. Arz- Arizona.
Aq- Acquire. Asa- As soon as.
Aqc- Acquaintance. Asb- Absorb.
Aqd- Acquired. Asbd- Absorbed.
Aqg- Acquiring. Asbg- Absorbing.
Aqm- Acquirement. Asc- Ascertain.
Ascd- Ascertained. Atks- Attacks.
Asd- Associated. Atl- Atlantic.
Asf- As follows: ---* Atm- Attempt.
Asg- Ascertaining. Atmd- Attempted.
Asi- Assist. Atmg- Attempting.
Asic- Assistance. Atms- Attempts.
Asid- Assisted. Atn- Attention.
Asig- Assisting. Atns- Attentions.
Asit- Assistant. Atr- Attract.
Asl- Asleep. Atrd- Attracted.
Asm- Assemble. Atrg- Attracting.
Asmd- Assembled. Atrn- Attraction.
Asmg- Assembling. Atrs- Attracts.
Asmj- Assemblage. Atrv- Attractive.
Asn- Association. Atu- Attitude.
Aso- Also. Atv- Attentive.
Asp- Aspect. Atvy- Attentively.
Asr- Assert. Atx- Atrocious.
Asrd- Asserted. Aty- Attorney.
Asrg- Asserting. Atyg- Attorney-General.
Asrn- Assertion. Au- Author.
Ast- Associate. Aub- Auburn.
Asts- Associates. Auc- Auction.
Asu- Assume. Aucnr- Auctioneer.
Asud- Assumed. Aucs- Auctions.
Asug- Assuming. Aud- Audience.
Asun- Assumption. Audm- Auditorium.
Asus- Assemes. Auds- Audiences.
Asx- Assinate. Aug- August.
Asxd- Assassinated. Auh- Authentic.
Asxg- Assassinating. Auhcy- Authenticity.
Asxn- Assassination. Auhd- Autheenticated.
Asy- Assembly. Auhg- Authenticating.
Atb- Attribute. Auhn- Authentication.
Atbd- Attributed. Auhs- Authenticates.
Atbg- Attributing. Auhy- Authentiaclly.
Atc- Attendance. Aum- Autumn.
Atd- Attend. Aumb- Automobile.
Atdd- Attended. Aun- Austrian.
Atds- Attends. Aup- Auspices.
Atg- Attending. Aupx- Auspicious.
Ath- Athlete. Aur- Austria.
Athc- Athletic. Aus- Austrailia.
Athcs- Atletics. Ausn- Austrailian.
Aths- Athletes. Aut- Adjourned until
Atk- Attack. to-morrow.
Atkd- Attacked. Auv- Authoritative.
Atkg- Attacking. Auvy- Authoritatively.
Aux- Auxiliary. Awi- Awhile.
Auy- Authority. Ax- Ask.
Auys- Authorities. Axd- Asked.
Auz- Authorize. Axg- Asking.
Auzd- Authorized. Axn- Annexation.
Augz- Authorizing. Ay- Any.
Auzn- Authorization. Ayb- Anybody.
Auzs- Authorizes. Ayg- Anything.
Av- Average. Ayh- Anyhow.
Avb- Available. Aym- Any more.
Avd- Averaged. Ayo- Any other.
Ave- Avenue. Ay4- Anywhere.
Avg- Averaging. Az- Applause.
Avin- Aviation. B- Be.
Avir- Aviator. Baf- Baffle.
Avix- Aviatrix. Bafd- Baffled.
Avk- Advocate. Bafg- Baffling.
Avkd- Advocated. Bafs- Baffles.
Avkg- Advocating. Baj- Badge.
Avl- Avail. Bal- Balance.
Avld- Availed. Bald- Balanced.
Avig- Availing. Balg- Balancing.
Avls- Avails. Bap- Baptist.
Avm- Averment. Bas- By a score of.
Avn- Aversion. Bc- Because.
Avo- Avoid. Bca- Became.
Avob- Avoidable. Bch- Beach.
Avod- Avoided. Bcm- Become. ---*
Avog- Avoiding. Bd- Board.
Avos- Avoids. Bdd- Boarded. ---*
Ayr[sic]- Aver. Bdg- Boarding.
Avrd- Averred. Bdl- Bundle.
Avrg- Averring. Bdm- Bondsman.
Avrs- Avers. Bdmn- Bondsmen.
Avs- Averages. Bdn- Burden.
Avt- Avert. Bdr- Boarder.
Avtd- Averted. Bds- Boards.
Avtg- Averting. Bdt- Bandit.
Avts- Averts. Bdy- Body.
Avoy- Avoidably. Bea- Beacon.
Aw- At which. Bef- Beef.
Awa- Away. Beq- Bequest.
Awd- Award. Bev- Beverage.
Awdd- Awarded. Bew- Bewilder.
Awdg- Awarding. Bf- Before.
Awds- Awards. Bfh- Beforehand.
Awf- Awful. Bfl- Beautiful.
Awfy- Awfully. Bkt- Breakfast.
Bfy- Beautifully. Bnv- Benevolent.
Bg- Being. Bo- Baltimore.
Bga- Began. Boe- Bank of England.
Bgg- Baggage. Boh- Board of Health.
Bgi- Begin. Bop- Breach of promise.
Bgig- Beginning. Bos- Boston.
Bgm- Belgium. Bot- Bought.
Bgn- Bargain. Bp- Bishop.
Bgr- Burglar. Bpc- Bishopric.
Bgt- Bright. Bq- Bequeath.
Bug- Begun. Bqd- Bequeathed.
Bgy- Burglary. Bqg- Bequeathing.
Bh- Both. Br- British.
Bhd- Behind. Brc- Brilliance.
Bhf- Behalf. Brd- Burned.
Bhv- Behave. Brf- Brief.
Bi- By. Brg- Burning.
Bis- Bystander. Bri- Brilliant.
Bit- By the. Brk- Broke.
Bj- Bound. Brl- Barrel.
Bjy- Boundary. Brm- Barometer.
Bk- Break. Brn- Burn.
Bkg- Breaking. Bro- Brother.
Bkn- Broken. Bry- Brilliantly.
Bkw- Backward. Brz- Breeze.
Bky- Bakery. Bs- Best.
Bl- Bill. Bsp- Battleship.
Bld- Build. Bsps- Battleships.
Blf- Belief. Bt- But.
Blg- Building. Btk- Betake.
Blk- Black. Btl- Battle.
Blm- Blame. Btld- Battled.
Bln- Berlin. Btlg- Battling.
Blo- Blow. Btn- Between.
Blt- Built. Btr- Better.
Blu- Blue. Bts- By the score of.
Bmb- Bombard. Bty- Battery.
Bmd- Bombarded. Bu- Bushel.
Bmg- Bombarding. Buf- Buffalo.
Bmt- Bombardment. Buk- Book. ---*
Bn- Been. Bun- Bulletin.
Bnd- Bond. Buo- Bureau.
Bnf- Benefit. Bv- Believe.
Bng- Bring. Bvd- Believed.
Bnh- Beneath. Bvg- Believing.
Bnk- Bank. Bvs- Believes.
Bnl- Beneficial. Bw- Be with.
Bng- Banquet. Bwr- Beware.
Bx- Brackets . Cby- Celebrity.
Bxd- Boxed. Cbt- Cabinet.
Bxg- Boxing. Ccd- Concluded.
Bxr- Boxer. Ccg- Concluding.
Bxs- Boxes. Ccl- Cancel.
Byd- Beyond. Ccld- Cancelled.
Bz- Business. Ccclg- Cancelling.
Bzl- Brazil. Ccln- Cancellation.
Bzln- Brazilian. Ccn- Conclusion.
C- See. Ccsn- Concession.
Ca- Came. Ccu- Conclude.
Cac- Caucus. Cd- Could.
Cacd- Caucused. Cda- Canada.
Cacg- Caucusing. Cde- Concede.
Cacs- Caucuses. Cdd- Conceded.
Cak- Contract. Cdg- Conceding.
Cakd- Contracted. Cdk- Contradict.
Cakg- Contracting. Cdkd- Contadicted.
cakn- Cantraction. Cdkg- Contradicting.
Cal- Calculate. Cdkn- Contradiction.
Cala- California. Cdm- Condemn.
Cald- Calculated. Cdmd- Condemned.
Calg- Calculating. Cdmg- Condumning.
Caln- Calculation. Cdmn- Condemnation.
Cap- Capital. Cdn- Canadian.
Capz- Capitalize. Cdr- Consider.
Capzd- Capitalized. Cdrd- Considered.
Capzg- Capitalizing. Cdrg- Considering.
Capzn- Capitalization. Cdrl- Considerable.
Cau- Cause. ---* Cdrn- Consideration.
Coud- Coused. Cdrs- Considers.
Caug- Causing. Cdry- Considerably.
Caus- Causes. Cdt- Credit.
Cav- Cavalry. Cdtd- Credited.
Cax- Casualties. Cdtg- Crediting.
Cay- Casualty. Cdtr- Creditor.
Cb- Celebrate. Cdy- Custody.
Cba- columbia. Cf- Chief.
Cbd- Celebrated. Cfc- Confidence.
Cbg- Celebrating. ---* Cfd- Confined.
Cbi- Covered by insur- Cfg- Confining.
ance. Cfi- Confine.
Cbl- Cable. Cfim- Confinement.
Cbld- Cabled. Cfk- Confiscate.
Cblg- Cabling. Cfkd- Confiscated.
Cbls- Cables. Cfkg- Confiscating.
Cbn- Celebration. Cfkn- Confiscation.
Cbs- Celebrates Cfi- Confidential.
Cfly- Confidentially. Chp- Cheap.
Cfm- Confirm. Chpr- Cheaper.
Cfmd- Confirmed. Chr- Character.
Cfmg- Confirming. Chrc- Characteristic.
Cfms- Confirms. Chu- Choose.
Cfn -Confirmation. Chz- Characterize.
Cfr- Chauffeur. Chzd- Characterized.
Cft- Confident. Chzg- Characterizing.
Cfty- Confidently. Chzn- Characterization.
Cfu- Confuse. Chzs- Characterizes.
Cfud- Confused. Cic- Commander in
Cfug- Confusing. chief.
Cfun- Confusion. Cin- Cincinnati.
Cfus- Confuses. Ciq- Coroner's inquest.
Cfy- Cheifly. Cj- Coroner's jury.
Cg- Seeing. Cjd- Congregated.
Cgm- Congressman. Cjg- Congregating.
Cgmn- Congressmen. Cjl- Congregational.
Cgn- Campaign. Cjn- Congregation.
Cpnd- Campaigned. Cjt- Congregate.
Cgng- Campaigning. Cjx- Courageous.
Cgns- Campaigns. Cjxy- Courageously.
Cgs- Congress. Ck- Check.
Cgsl- Congressional. Ckc- Coerce.
Ch- Chicago. Ckl- Circle.
Cha- China. Ckld- Circled.
Chad- Chamber of Cklg- Circling.
Deputies. Ckls- Circles.
Chc- Chance. Ckn- Coercion.
Chcd- Chanced. Ckt- Circuit.
Chcg- Chancing. Cktx- Circuitous.
Chcs- Chances. Ckv- Coercive.
Che- Chinese. Ckx- Committed sui-
Chg- Charge. cide.
Chgd- Charged. Cl- Call.
Chgg- Charging. Cla- Class.
Chgs- Charges. Cld- Called.
Chh- Church. Clg- Calling.
Chj- Challenge. Clj- College.
Chjd- Challenged. Cljt- Collegiate.
Chjg- Challenging. Clk- Clerk.
Chjr- Challenger. Clm- Claim.
Chjs- Challenges. Clmd- Claimed.
Chk- Cheek. Clmg- Claiming.
Chm- Chairman. Clms- Claims.
Chmn- Chairmen. Clo- Close.
Chn- Children. Clod- Closed.
Cho- Chose. Clog- Closing.