**From:** Tsuk, Michael (*[email protected]*)

**Date:** Wed Nov 29 2000 - 08:29:08 PST

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Bob Haller wrote:

At higher edge rates (< 100ps) we began to see discrepancies. I think these

were limitations in the

Dielectric losses not modeled over frequency, Michael Tsuk, Could answer

this better.

Since Bob mentioned my concerns here, I thought I'd elaborate a bit. My

problem is that the two dielectric loss parameters in the current version of

the WLINE model are insufficient. The DC loss (Go) is not very helpful in

most cases, since our dielectric materials tend to have very low leakage at

DC. The frequency-dependent loss (Gd), coming as it does from a constant

loss tangent, has problems for time domain simulation.

The problem is that the admittance per unit length of the transmission line

in the frequency domain (G + j \omega C) must be the Fourier transform of an

impulse response that is real, causal, and passive. This puts significant

constraints on the behavior of the admittance in the frequency domain. In

particular, the real part must be an even function of frequency, and the

imaginary part must be odd. So the loss tangent can't be constant, since

that would give G proportional to \omega C. For those of you with a physics

background, this is just a consequence of the Kramers-Kronig relation; for

those with filter design experience, imagine trying to design a filter with

constant phase (not linear phase). It is my belief, although I haven't

proven it, is that in trying to match a physical time domain response to a

non-physical frequency response the WLINE model can sometimes get confused.

In any case, with the new table-based model, these problems are in theory

resolved. But the ball is back in our court as to how to generate the

tables properly. Constant loss tangent is unphysical, and yet it seems to

be a reasonable approximation to the behavior of FR4 over a significant

frequency range. I would appreciate an ideas or references anyone has on

this issue.

-- Michael Tsuk Compaq AlphaServer Product Development (508) 467-4621-----Original Message----- From: Haller, Robert [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Tuesday, November 28, 2000 5:12 PM To: 'Larry Miller'; David Kaiser; Kai Keskinen; [email protected] Subject: RE: [SI-LIST] : Accuracy of HSPICE W-element transmission lines

Larry, A while ago I did simulation versus measurement comparisons using AVANT! W-element and a TDR with high bandwidth FET probes. (But I used RLGC matrixes generated by Digital's/Compaq's internal Field solver - SIMPEST) . I utilized various edge rates 50->500 ps edge rate, a 12 inch transmission line, and Hspice 99.x I also acquired and digitized the source and destination waveforms of the transmission line, was careful to model the probes in my simulation and use the actual digitized waveform (PWL) with the correct output impedance as the input stimulus to SPICE. A few Key items was to digitize the input waveform going into the W-line and to Cross-section the actual Transmission Line you measured. I was successful in getting W-line simulations to virtually overlay measured results (far end of the Transmission line using the W-LINE). At higher edge rates (< 100ps) we began to see discrepancies. I think these were limitations in the Dielectric losses not modeled over frequency, Michael Tsuk, Could answer this better. I also found the the simulations were surprising affected be HSPICE OPTIONS; METHOD, TIMESTEP Very Long Lines (> 3 Meters had issues - I think this has been fixed) T-lines were surprising good if you don't care about high frequency effects and U-Lines were horrible. Bob Haller Cereva Networks Marlboro Ma. 508-486-9660-3365

-----Original Message----- From: Larry Miller [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Monday, November 27, 2000 1:53 PM To: David Kaiser; Kai Keskinen; [email protected] Subject: RE: [SI-LIST] : Accuracy of HSPICE W-element transmission lines

Yes, but have you compared your results (either) with real hardware?

Inquiring minds want to know....

Thanks,

Larry Miller

-----Original Message----- From: David Kaiser [SMTP:[email protected]] Sent: Monday, November 27, 2000 10:17 AM To: Keskinen, Kai [KAN:0G15:EXCH]; [email protected] Subject: RE: [SI-LIST] : Accuracy of HSPICE W-element transmission lines

I have compared the W-element with the RLGC matrix from running APSIM on 100 Ohm diff'l pairs). With a 30ps pulse and 10ps rise times, the reflected pulse was very symetrical for the W-element, but showed and RC roll off with APSIM. The APSIM seemed to shown a more realistic reflection pulse.

David Kaiser McDATA Corp. 310 Interlocken Pkwy. Broomfield, CO 80021 (303) 460-4431 [email protected]

-----Original Message----- From: Kai Keskinen [ mailto:[email protected] <mailto:[email protected]> ] Sent: Thursday, November 23, 2000 11:19 AM To: [email protected] Subject: [SI-LIST] : Accuracy of HSPICE W-element transmission lines

Hello SI-People:

We have now several times encountered differences in results from other modelling packages and results from HSPICE w-element models for applications involving fairly long striplines > 30cm on FR4 and GETEK with 2.5Gbps signals with ~100ps edge rates. The W-element model appears to give lower loss than the other techniques. Typical track widths are 6-8 mils with 100Ohm loosely coupled differential pairs.

Avant! claims the W-element method is accurate without providing a paper showing how it was validated.

How does the rest of the SI community feel about the accuracy of the W-element model?

Thanks in advance,

Kai Keskinen Equipment and Network Interconnect Nortel Subsystems and Performance Networks (NSPaN) (613)-765-3506 (ESN 395) [email protected]

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