This topic is very important in timing simulation and is one of my pet
peeves. I agree whole-heartedly with Abe, except for the comment that "if
accurately specified they can aid board level timing simulation runs." In
fact, I would argue that the timing test load MUST be included to do any
meaningful timing simulation.
My first check of an IBIS file is to see if the IBIS author has correctly
used the Vmeas, Vref, Rref, and Vref parameters. If not, they probably
don't understand IBIS and the whole file is suspect. The timing test load
should be defined for every driver including I/O and should not be included
for receiver only models. If you create any IBIS files, please take the
time to understand the correct usage of Vmeas, Vref, Rref, and Cref. Your
customers will love and praise you :-)!
Signal Integrity Engineer
Compaq Computer Corp.
From: Abe Riazi [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org]
Sent: Saturday, 15 May, 1999 11:50 AM
Cc: Walt Otto
Subject: [SI-LIST] : Looking Inside IBIS Model
An IBIS model contains several different sections
parasitics, pin mapping, DC I-V curves and V-T tables. Each
performs a useful function and desreves attention when
accuracy of an IBIS behavioral model.
Also present in some models are parameters Cref, Rref,
Vmeas, which define the test load used by the semiconductor
determining propagation delay or switching time of the
Cref: A shunt capacitor which connects the driver output
Rref: A resistor connecting the output of device to Vref.
Vref: Timing specification test load voltage.
Vmeas: Reference voltage for timing measurements, with a
between input logic low ( Vinl ) amd input voltage high (
Based on IBIS standards, Vmeas, Cref, Rref, and Vref
optional. Therefore, there are many models which lack these
But if accurately specified they can aid board level timing
I always look for them in driver models for several
1. For an appraisal of the quality of the model.
2. For a comparison with the test load specified in the
section of the device's datasheet.
3. If determined to be consistent with the datasheet,
then to be
employed in time_To_Vm calibration runs of the Quad models
from IBIS models by means of IBIS2XTK conversion program.)
I have seen numerous models having test load parameters
with the datasheet and have asked following question from
For timing calibration runs should the test load defined
in the IBIS
model be used or the one specified in the datasheet ?
The answers have varied. Some IC vendors have suggested
test load defined in the model, while others have
circuit described by the datasheet. I agree with the
latter, and prefer
using the dataheet's test load, whenever there is a
the test loads of the model and the datasheet. Another
by referring to the datasheet is that the test loads for the
and Max corners can be different; this variation is often
the datasheet, but seldom in the IBIS model.
It is important to note that during development of an
IBIS model the
parameters Rref, Cref, and Vmeas are not utilized for
generation of any
of the waveforms (i.e. pullup, pull down, rising, falling,
should not be confused with R_fixture, C_fixture, and
are in contrast used for creation of rising and falling
To clarify certain points of this discussion, three
Example 1. Following parameters were obtained from IBIS
model of a
Vinl = 1.2 V, Vinh = 1.6 V, Vmeas = 1.4 V, Vref = 1.4 V,
Rref = 28
Ohms, Cref = 0.0 pF, R_fixture = 28 Ohms, V_fixture = 1.8 V.
Example 2. Parmameters adapted from behavioral mode1 of
Vinl = 0.8 V, Vinh = 2.0 V, Vmeas = 1.4 V, Cref = 0.0 pF,
50 Ohms, V_fixture = 3.3 V, V_fixture_min = 3.135 V,
Example 3. Extracted from IBIS model of a Programmable
Vinl = 0.8 V, Vinh = 2.0 V, Vmeas = 1.5 V, Rref = 100 K,
Cref = 50
pF, Vref = 0.0 V, R_fixture = 50 Ohms, V_fixture =
V_fixture_min = 0.0 V.
The fixture parameters define the loading conditions
under which a
rising or falling waveform is generated. According to IBIS
only R_fixture and V_fixture are required, the remaining
are optional. It is believed that test fixtures composed of
V_fixture, V_fixture_min and V_fixture_max provide the
needed for production of a behavioral model. When a
missing, its value is assumed to be zero by default.
To summarize, test load and test fixture parameters are
equivalent. When Vmeas, Vref, Rref, and Cref are accurately
for a driver model, consistent with the datasheet, then they
valuable information which can facilitate the timing
runs and hence enhance the overall efficiency of a SI
load circuits are not needed for receiver models.
Your comments regarding this topic are highly
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