7. Punch-through of the gate oxide.
8. Can put a programmable device into program mode. (This has actually
been seen to happen!)
9. High clamping currents cause excessive electromigration.
When overshoots happen, and diodes clamp, I wouldn't be surprised if the
electrical environment in the vicinity of the pads and buffers gets
somewhat disturbed, in ways that are unique to each IC design, which
might indeed shift reference voltages around for a while.
If you were to use ECL, and didn't terminate so that you had really
lousy overshoot, a lot of positive overshoot could make a false output,
as an inverter effectively turns into a non-inverter.
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