Holy Quran Words


Islamic Inheritance Law

Mawarith - An Islamic Inheritance Calculation Program

Qur'an 4:11    Allah commands you as regards your children (inheritance),

            To the MALE, a portion equal to that of TWO FEMALES;

            If (there are) only DAUGHTERS, two or more, their share is TWO-THIRDS of the inheritance;

            If only one, her share is HALF.

            For PARENTS, a SIXTH share of inheritance to EACH if the deceased left CHILDREN;

            If NO CHILDREN, and the PARENTS are the (ONLY) heirs, the MOTHER has a THIRD;

            If the deceased left BROTHERS or (SISTERS), the MOTHER has a SIXTH.

            (The distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies he may have bequeathed or debts. You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children are nearest to you in benefit. (these fixed shares) are ordained by Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.

Qur'an 4:12     In that which your WIVES leave, your share is a HALF if they have NO CHILD;

            But if they leave a CHILD you get a FOURTH of that which they leave after payment of legacies that they may have bequeathed or debts.

            In that which YOU leave, their (YOUR WIVES) share is a FOURTH if you have NO CHILD;

            But if you leave a CHILD they get an EIGHTH of that which you leave after payment of legacies that you may have bequeathed or debts.

            If the MAN or WOMAN whose inheritance is in question has left NEITHER ASCENDANTS NOR DESCENDANTS (Al-Khalala), but has left a BROTHER or a SISTER, EACH ONE of the two gets a SIXTH; but if MORE THAN TWO, they share in a THIRD; after payment of legacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused (to anyone).

            THIS IS A COMMANDMENT FROM ALLAH; And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Most-Forebearing. 

Qur'an 4:176   They ask you for a legal verdict, Say, ďAllah directs (thus) about Al-Khalala (those who leave neither ascendants nor descendants as heirs).

            If it is a MAN that dies, leaving A SISTER but NO CHILD, SHE shall have HALF the inheritance.

            If (such a deceased was) a woman, who left NO CHILD, her BROTHER takes her INHERITANCE.

            If there are TWO SISTERS, they shall have TWO-THIRDS of the inheritance;

            If there are BROTHERS and SISTERS, the male will have TWICE the share of the female.

            (Thus) does Allah make clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.

 

LEVEL I - PRIMARY (Immediate) HEIRS

The primary (or immediate) heirs classified as Level I are:-

1.             The SPOUSE (Husband or a maximum of four Wives)

2.             The CHILDREN (Sons and Daughters)

3.             The PARENTS (Father & Mother)

4.             The GRANDCHILDREN (Sonsís SON or Sonís DAUGHTER only)

                (applicable only when the SON is already deceased only and has offspring) 

LEVEL II - SECONDARY HEIRS

The secondary heirs classified as Level II are:-

1.             The GRANDPARENTS (Paternal and Maternal)

2.             The BROTHERS and/or SISTERS (In the absence of Father and Son ONLY)

3.             The UNCLES and/or AUNTS (In the absence of Grandparents ONLY)

4.             The NEPHEWS and/or NIECES (In the absence of Brothers and Sisters ONLY)

Note: It is not practical to go beyond Grandparents as the chances of Greatgrandparents surviving before you is not very high. However, the logic is that in the absence of a particular heir, the next level becomes eligible for inheritance. Eg; IF the Grandparents are dead THEN the Great Grandparents are entitled (if living only) and so on. It is better, for practicality and convenience to limit the inheritance level up to The GrandParents and the Grandchildren. If we attempt to go beyond these levels there will be no limit to the program logic validation.

Under Islamic Law, the primary beneficiaries of a deceased person are his/her IMMEDIATE (Level I) Heirs. ie; Spouse(s), Children, Parents and Grandchildren (if children are deceased only). The Grandchildren that are entitled are only the Sonís Son or the Sonís Daughter. Daughters children are not entitled even if the Daughter is deceased.

In the absence of some or all of these heirs the secondary beneficiaries (Level II) become Heirs under various conditions. In the absence of a particular Heir (eg; Uncle) if and when he/she is entitled the children of that Heir become eligible.

LEVEL I - Inheritance Logic:

1.             SHARE OF HUSBAND 

                IF NO ENTITLED DESCENDANTS EXIST (ie; Children/Grandchildren)

                THEN

HUSBAND = 1/2

 

                IF ENTITLED DESCENDANTS EXIST (ie; Children/Grandchildren)

                THEN

HUSBAND = 1/4

 

                Note: ENTITLED DESCENDANTS = Sons, Daughters, Sonís Son, Sonís Daughter. Daughterís                 children are NOT entitled.

 

 

2.             SHARE OF WIFE

 

                IF NO ENTITLED DESCENDANTS EXIST (ie; Children/Grandchildren)

                THEN

WIFE = 1/4

 

                IF ENTITLED DESCENDANTS EXIST (ie; Children/Grandchildren)

                THEN

WIFE = 1/8

 

                Note: ENTITLED DESCENDANTS = Sons, Daughters, Sonís Son, Sonís Daughter. Daughterís                 children are NOT entitled.

 

 

3.             SHARE OF DAUGHTERí(s)

 

                IF ONLY ONE DAUGHTER (and NO Sons)

                THEN

                DAUGHTER = 1/2

               

                IF TWO OR MORE DAUGHTERS ONLY (and NO Sons)

                THEN

                DAUGHTERS = 2/3

(to be shared equally between all of them)

               

                IF both SONís & DAUGHTERS EXIST,

                THEN

                SON:DAUGHTER = 2:1

 

 

4.             SHARE OF FATHER

 

                IF ENTITLED DESCENDANTS EXIST

                                                                                (Sons, Daughters, Sonís Sons, Sonís Daughters)

                THEN

                FATHER = 1/6

               

                IF NO MALE DESCENDANTS EXIST (Sons, Sonís Sons)

                THEN

                FATHER = 1/6  plus Residue

(residue = remainder after all legal shares are distributed)

               

                IF NO ENTITLED DESCENDANTS EXIST

                THEN

                FATHER = Residue

               

 

5.             SHARE OF MOTHER

 

                IF ENTITLED DESCENDANTS or BROTHERS/SISTERS EXIST

                THEN

                MOTHER = 1/6

               

                IF NO ENTITLED DESCENDANTS EXIST

                THEN

                        IF  NO  BROTHERS/SISTERS, NO FATHER, NO SPOUSE EXIST

                        THEN

                MOTHER = 1/3

 

                        IF  BROTHERS/SISTERS, FATHER, or SPOUSE EXIST

                        THEN

                MOTHER = 1/3 of Residue

 

6.                UTERINE BROTHER/SISTER ( from same Mother, different father)

 

                IF ONE UTERINE BROTHER/SISTER EXIST

                THEN

                                IF NO ENTITLED DESCENDANTS and NO MALE ASCENDANTS

                                                                                                                                (Father/Fatherís Father etc)

                                THEN

                                                UTERINE BROTHER = 1/6 or UTERINE SISTER  = 1/6

                               

                IF TWO OR MORE UTERINE BROTHERS/SISTERS EXIST

                THEN

                                IF NO ENTITLED DESCENDANTS .AND.NO MALE ASCENDANTS

                                                                                                                                (Father/Fatherís Father etc.)

                                THEN

                                                ALL UTERINE BROTHERS & SISTERS = 1/3

                               

                Note: If there are UTERINE Brothers/Sisters IN ADDITION to FULL Brothers/Sisters (same father/mother), then they share in the residue.

 

7.             SHARE OF SONíS DAUGHTER

 

                IF ONE SONíS DAUGHTER EXIST

                THEN

                                IF NO DAUGHTERS EXIST

                                THEN

                                                IF NO SONíS SON EXIST

                                                THEN

                                                                SONíS DAUGHTER = 1/2

                                                IF SONíS SON EXIST

                                                THEN

                                                                SONíS DAUGHTER = HALF SHARE OF SONíS SON

                                                                    (ie Sonís SON share: Sonís DAUGHTER share = 2:1)

 

                IF TWO OR MORE SONíS DAUGHTERS EXIST

                THEN

                                IF NO DAUGHTERS EXIST

                                THEN

                                                IF NO SONíS SONs EXIST

                                                THEN

                                                                SONíS DAUGHTERS = 2/3 (equally between them)

 

                                                IF SONís SON EXISTS

                                                THEN

                                                                SONíS DAUGHTER = HALF SHARE OF SONíS SON

                                                                    (ie Sonís SON share: Sonís DAUGHTER share = 2:1)

 

8.             SHARE OF FULL BROTHER/SISTER

                (Full Brother/Sisters are brothers/sisters from the same FATHER & MOTHER)

 

                Brothers & Sisters inherit ONLY when there are NO Descendants (Son/Sons, Sonís son

                etc.) and NO Ascendants (Father/Grandfather etc.)

 

                The arabic word ďAL-KHALALAĒ is used in the Quran, Chapter 4 - Al-Nisa, Verses 12 & 176, which is translated by almost all the translators of the Quran to mean ďAscendants & DescendantsĒ thus giving rise to the interpretation that they include ďParents and ChildrenĒ. However, many scholars have preferred to classify the word as meaning ďFather or SonĒ thus                 excluding the female components of both Ascendants and Descendants (mother & daughters).

 

                IF NO FULL BROTHER and NO FEMALE ENTITLED DESCENDANT EXIST

                                                                                                (daughter, Sonís daughter etc.)

                THEN

                                IF deceased was MALE,

                                THEN

                                                                                FULL SISTER = 1/2 (if only ONE)

 

                IF NO FULL SISTER and NO FEMALE ENTITLED DESCENDANT EXIST

                THEN

                                IF deceased was FEMALE,

                                THEN 

                                                                                FULL BROTHER = 1 (if only ONE)

 

                IF TWO OR MORE BROTHERS & SISTERS

                THEN

                                                                                FULL SISTERs = 2/3 (shared equally between them)

                                                                                FULL BROTHERís & SISTERís (combination) = 2:1

                IF NO FULL BROTHER EXIST but FEMALE ENTITLED DESCENDANT EXIST

                                                                                                (daughter, Sonís daughter etc.)

                THEN

                                                                                FULL SISTER = 1/6 (if only one)

 

                IF NO FULL SISTER EXIST but FEMALE ENTITLED DESCENDANT EXIST

                THEN

                                                                                FULL BROTHER = 1/6 (if only one)

 

                IF FEMALE ENTITLED DESCENDANT EXIST

                THEN

                                                                                FULL SISTERS & BROTHERS = 1/3 (share equally)

 

 

9.                CONSANGUINE SISTER (Sister from same Father but different Mother)

 

                Consanguine Sisters inherit ONLY when there are NO SONís or Sonís SON(s) AND NO FATHER AND NO FULL BROTHER.

 

                IF ONLY ONE FULL SISTER AND NO CONSANGUINE BROTHER

                THEN

                                                CONSANGUINE SISTER (if only one) = 1/2

                                                CONSANGUINE SISTER(s) (if two or more) = 2/3

               

 

                IF ONE FULL SISTER AND CONSANGUINE BROTHER(s)

                THEN

                                                                (CONSANGUINE) BROTHER:SISTER = 2:1

 

 

10.          TRUE GRANDMOTHER

 

                True Grandmother is defined as the one whose line of connection with the deceased is NOT interrupted by a MALE between two FEMALES. They are entitled ONLY if the FATHER or MOTHER do not exist.

 

                Eg;                 Motherís MOTHER, Fatherís MOTHER

                                Fatherís Fatherís MOTHER, Motherís Motherís MOTHER

 

                                                                TRUE GRANDMOTHER = 1/6

 

11.          TRUE GRANDFATHER

 

                True Grandfather is the one whose line of connection with the deceased is NOT interrupted by a FEMALE between two MALES. They are entitled ONLY if the Father or Mother do not exist.

 

                Eg;                Fatherís FATHER

                                Fatherís Fatherís FATHER

                                Motherís FATHER

                                Motherís Fatherís FATHER

 

                TRUE GRANDFATHER = 1/6                   IF MALE DESCENDANTS EXIST (Son, etc)

                TRUE GRANDFATHER = 1/6 + Residue IF FEMALE descendants exist

                TRUE GRANDFATHER = Residue                 IF NO Male/Female descendants exist

 

12.                UNCLES & AUNTS (Fatherís/Motherís Brothers & Sisters)

 

                Uncles and Aunts are ONLY entitled in the absence of GRANDPARENTS. This means that they will receive shares ONLY if there are NO Parents AND Grandparents because Grandparents do not inherit when the Parents are living. They will also NOT inherit if the children (or childrenís children) of the deceased are living. Proportions here are also in the ratio of 2:1 for Male:Female.

 

13.                NEPHEWS & NIECES (Children of Brothers/Sisters)

 

                Nephews and Nieces are ONLY entitled in the absence of Brothers and Sisters. This means that they take the shares of the Brothers/Sisters of the deceased in their absence. Hence a Nepew/Niece will receive what his/her parent (Brother/Siuster of the deceased) would have received if he/she was alive. They will also NOT inherit if the children (or childrenís children) of the deceased are living. Proportions here are also 2:1 for Male:Female.

 

Acknowledgements: Information in this page taken from www.srilankamuslim.com website.

Thirukkural - 200

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