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|TROPICAL CYCLONE NAMES||SAFFIR-SIMPSON SCALE||THE BEAUFORT SCALE|
|DISASTER PREPAREDNESS KIT||CONVERSION FACTORS||reserved|
Atlantic Names: 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Alex Arlene Alberto Allison Arthur Bonnie Bret Beryl Barry Bertha Charley Cindy Chris Chantal Cristobal Danielle Dennis Debby Dean Dolly Earl Emily Ernesto Erin Edouard Frances Floyd Florence Felix Fay Georges Gert Gordon Gabrielle Gustav Hermine Harvey Helene Humberto Hanna Ivan Irene Isaac Iris Isidore Jeanne Jose Joyce Jerry Josephine Karl Katrina Keith Karen Kyle Lisa Lenny Leslie Lorenzo Lili Mitch Maria Michael Michelle Marco Nicole Nate Nadine Noel Nana Otto Ophelia Oscar Olga Omar Paula Philippe Patty Pablo Paloma Richard Rita Rafael Rebekah Rene Shary Stan Sandy Sebastien Sally Tomas Tammy Tony Tanya Teddy Virginie Vince Valerie Van Vicky Walter Wilma William Wendy Wilfred These lists are re-cycled every 6 years (the 1998 list will be reused in 2004). Several names have been changed since the lists were last used. Bill replaced Bob in 1997, and Alex has replaced Andrew in 1998. Four names from the 1995 list have been retired. On the 2001 list, Lorenzo has replaced Luis, Michelle has replaced Marilyn, Olga has replaced Opal, and Rebekah has replaced Roxanne. Three names from the 1996 list have been retired. On the 2002 list, Cristobal has replaced Cesar, Fay has replaced Fran, and Hanna has replaced Hortense. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eastern North Pacific Names: 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Agatha Adrian Aletta Adolph Alma Blas Beatriz Bud Barbara Boris Celia Calvin Carlotta Cosme Cristina Darby Dora Daniel Dalilia Douglas Estelle Eugene Emilia Erick Elida Frank Fernanda Fabio Flossie Fausto Georgette Greg Gilma Gil Genevieve Howard Hilary Hector Henriette Hernan Isis Irwin Ileana Israel Iselle Javier Jova John Juliette Julio Kay Kenneth Kristy Kiko Kenna Lester Lidia Lane Lorena Lowell Madeline Max Miriam Manuel Marie Newton Norma Norman Narda Norbert Orlene Otis Olivia Octave Odile Paine Pilar Paul Priscilla Polo Roslyn Ramon Rosa Raymond Rachel Seymour Selma Sergio Sonia Simon Tina Todd Tara Tico Trudy Virgil Veronica Vicente Velma Vance Winifred Wiley Willa Wallis Winnie Xavier Xina Xavier Xina Xavier Yolanda York Yolanda York Yolanda Zeke Zelda Zeke Zelda Zeke These lists are also re-cycled every six years (the 1998 list will be used again in 2004). Israel replaces Ismael in 2001.
The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a 1-5 rating based on the hurricane's present intensity. This is used to give an estimate of the potential property damage and flooding expected along the coast from a hurricane landfall. Wind speed is the determining factor in the scale, as storm surge values are highly dependent on the slope of the continental shelf in the landfall region. Note that all winds are using the U.S. 1-minute average. Category One Hurricane: Winds 74-95 mph (64-82 kt or 119-153 kph). Storm surge generally 4-5 ft above normal. No real damage to building structures. Damage primarily to unanchored mobile homes, shrubbery, and trees. Some damage to poorly constructed signs. Also, some coastal road flooding and minor pier damage. Hurricanes Allison and Noel of 1995 were Category One hurricanes at peak intensity. Category Two Hurricane: Winds 96-110 mph (83-95 kt or 154-177 kph). Storm surge generally 6-8 feet above normal. Some roofing material, door, and window damage of buildings. Considerable damage to shrubbery and trees with some trees blown down. Considerable damage to mobile homes, poorly constructed signs, and piers. Coastal and low-lying escape routes flood 2-4 hours before arrival of the hurricane center. Small craft in unprotected anchorages break moorings. Hurricane Bertha of 1996 was a Category Two hurricane when it hit the North Carolina coast, while Hurricane Marilyn of 1995 was a Category Two Hurricane when it passed through the Virgin Islands. Category Three Hurricane: Winds 111-130 mph (96-113 kt or 178-209 kph). Storm surge generally 9-12 ft above normal. Some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings with a minor amount of curtainwall failures. Damage to shrubbery and trees with foliage blown off trees and large tress blown down. Mobile homes and poorly constructed signs are destroyed. Low-lying escape routes are cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the hurricane center. Flooding near the coast destroys smaller structures with larger structures damaged by battering of floating debris. Terrain continuously lower than 5 ft above mean sea level may be flooded inland 8 miles (13 km) or more. Evacuation of low-lying residences with several blocks of the shoreline may be required. Hurricanes Roxanne of 1995 and Fran of 1996 were Category Three hurricanes at landfall on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexco and in North Carolina, respectively. Category Four Hurricane: Winds 131-155 mph (114-135 kt or 210-249 kph). Storm surge generally 13-18 ft above normal. More extensive curtainwall failures with some complete roof structure failures on small residences. Shrubs, trees, and all signs are blown down. Complete destruction of mobile homes. Extensive damage to doors and windows. Low-lying escape routes may be cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the hurricane center. Major damage to lower floors of structures near the shore. Terrain lower than 10 ft above sea level may be flooded requiring massive evacuation of residential areas as far inland as 6 miles (10 km). Hurricane Luis of 1995 was a Category Four hurricane while moving over the Leeward Islands. Hurricanes Felix and Opal of 1995 also reached Catgeory Four status at peak intensity. Category Five Hurricane: Winds greater than 155 mph (135 kt or 249 kph). Storm surge generally greater than 18 ft above normal. Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. All shrubs, trees, and signs blown down. Complete destructon of mobile homes. Severe and extensive window and door damage. Low-lying escape routes are cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the hurricane center. Major damage to lower floors of all structures located less than 15 ft above sea level and within 500 yards of the shoreline. Massive evacuation of residential areas on low ground within 5-10 miles (8-16 km) of the shoreline may be required. There were no Category Five hurricanes in 1995 or 1996. Hurricane Gilbert of 1988 was a Category Five hurricane at peak intensity and is the strongest Atlantic tropical cyclone of record.
Beaufort Knots Miles Km Description Observation on Land Number Per Hour ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 0-1 0-1 0-1 Calm Smoke rises straight up 1 1-3 1-3 1-5 Light air Smoke drifts; tree leaves barely move 2 4-6 4-7 6-11 Slight breeze Leaves rustle; wind felt on face 3 7-10 8-12 12-19 Gentle breeze Leaves and twigs in motion; bits of paper and dust rise from the ground 4 11-16 13-18 20-28 Moderate breeze Small branches move 5 17-21 19-24 29-38 Fresh breeze Small trees sway; dust clouds rise 6 22-27 25-31 39-49 Strong breeze Large branches sway; difficult to use umbrellas 7 28-33 32-38 50-61 Moderate gale Whole trees in motion; difficult to
walk 8 34-40 39-46 62-74 Fresh gale Twigs break off trees 9 41-47 47-54 75-88 Strong gale Branches break; slight damage to buildings 10 48-55 55-63 89-102 Whole gale Trees are blown down; heavy damage to buildings 11 56-63 64-72 103-117 Storm Widespread damage 12 64 & 73 & 118 & Hurricane Extreme damage above above above
Disasters happen anytime and anywhere. And when disaster strikes, you may not have much time to respond. A highway spill or hazardous material could mean evacuation. A hurricane, forest fire, flood, tornado, or any other disaster could cut water, electricity, and telephones- for days. After a disaster, local officials and relief workers will be on the scene, but they cannot reach everyone immediately. You could get help in hours, or it may take days. Would your family be prepared to cope with the emergency until help arrives? Your family will cope best by preparing for disaster before it strikes. One way to prepare is by assembling a Disaster Supplies Kit. Once disaster hits, you won't have time to shop or search for supplies. But if you've gathered supplies in advance, your family can endure an evacuation or home confinement for a week or more if you're prepared. Prepare Your Kit 1. Review the checklist below. 2. Gather the supplies that are listed. You may need them if your family is confined at home. 3. Place supplies you'd most likely need for an evacuation in an easy-to-carry container. 4. There are six basics you should stock for your home: water, food, first aid supplies, clothing, bedding, tools and emergency supplies, and special items. Keep items that you would most likely need during an evacuation in an easy-to-carry container. Possible Containers Include -- 1. A large, covered trash container. 2. A camping backpack 3. A duffle bag. Water 1. Store water in plastic containers such as soft drink bottles. Avoid using containers that will break such as milk cartons or glass bottles. A normal active person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments and intense physical activity can double that amount. Children, nursing mothers, and ill people will need more. 2. Store one gallon of water per person per day. 3. Keep at least a three-day supply of water per day (two quarts for drinking, two quarts for each person in your houshold for food preparation/sanitation). Food 1. Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food. Select foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking, and little or no water. If you must heat food, pack a can of sterno. Select food items that are compact and lightweight. 2. Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, and vegetables. First Aid Kit Assemble a first aid kit for your home and one for each car. A first aid kit should include: 1. Sterile adhesive bandages in assorted sizes 2. Assorted sizes or safety pins 3. Cleaning agent/soap 4. Latex gloves (2 pair) 5. Sunscreen 6. 2-inch sterile gauze (4-6) 7. 4-inch sterile gauze pads (4-6) 8. Triangular bandages (3) 9. 2- inch sterile roller bandages (3 rolls) 10. 3-inch sterile roller bandages (3 rolls) 11. Scissors 12. Tweezers 13. Needles 14. Moistened towelettes 15. Antiseptic 16. Thermometer 17. Tongue Blades (2) 18. Tube of Petroleum Jelly or other Lubricant Non-Prescription Drugs 1. Aspirin or nonaspirin pain reliever 2. Anti-diarrehea medication 3. Antacid (for stomach upset) 4. Syrup of Ipecac (use to induce vomiting if advised by the Poison Control Center). Laxative 1. Laxative: Activated charcoal (use if advised by the Poison Control Center). Tools and Supplies 1. Mess kits, or paper cups, plates, and plastic utensils. 2. Emergency preparedness manual 3. Battery-operated radio and extra batteries. 4. Flashlight and extra batteries. 5. Cash or traveler's checks, and change. 6. Non-electric can opener, utility knife. 7. Fire extinguisher: small canister ABC type. 8. Tube Tent. 9. Pliers. 10. Tape. 11. Compass. 12. Matches in a waterproof container. 13. Aluminum Foil. 14. Plastic Storage Containers. 15. Signal Flares. 16. Paper, Pencil. 17. Needles, thread. 18. Medicine Dropper. 19. Shut-Off wrench, to turn of household gas and water. 20. Whistle (to summon help). 21. Plastic Sheeting. 22. Map of the area (for locating shelters). Sanitation 1. Toilet paper, towelettes. 2. Soap, Liquid Detergent. 3. Feminine Supplies. 4. Personal Hygiene Items. 5. Plastic Garbage Bags, Ties (for personal Sanitation uses). 6. Plastic Bucket with Tight Lid. 7. Disinfectant. 8. Household Chlorine Bleach Clothing and Bedding 1. Include at least one complete change of clothing and footwear per person. 2. Sturdy shoes or work boots. 3. Rain Gear. 4. Blankets or Sleeping Bags. 5. Hat and Gloves. 6. Thermal Underwear. 7. Sunglasses. Special Items 1. Remember family members with special requirements, such as Infants and Elderly or Disabled Persons. For Baby 1. Formula. 2. Diapers. 3. Bottles. 4. Powered Milk. 5. Medications (3 Weeks Worth). For Adults 1. Heart and High Blood Pressure Medication. 2. Insulin. 3. Prescription Drugs. 4. Denture Needs. 5. Contact Lenses and Supplies. 6. Extra Eye Glasses. Entertainment 1. Games and Books (Kid's Games as Well). Important Family Documents 1. Keep these records in a waterproof, portable container: A. Will, Insurance Policies, Contracts, Deeds, Stocks, Bonds. B. Passports, Social Security Cards, Immunization Records. C. Bank Account Numbers. D. Credit Card Account Numbers and Companies. E. Inventory of Valuable Household Goods. F. Family Records (Birth, Marriage, Death Certificates). G. Store your Kit in a convenient place known to all family members. Keep a smaller version of the Kit in the trunk of your car. H. Keep items in Airtight Plastic Bags. Change your stored water supply every six months. Re-think your kit and family needs at least once a year. Replace baterries, update clothes, etc. G. Ask your Physician or Pharmacist about storing prescription medications. (Courtesy David A. Smith KE4UEI)
To convert Millibars to Inches of Mercury, Multiply mb by .029528 To convert Inches of Mercury to Millibars, Multiply In/Hg by 33.87 To convert Knots to Statute Miles per Hour, Multiply Knots by 1.151 To convert statute Miles per Hour to Knots, Multiply MPH by .8684 To convert Miles per Hour to Kilometers per Hour, Multiply MPH by 1.609 To convert Kilometers per Hour to Miles per Hour, Multiply Km/Hr by .6214
Page Created July 26, 1998