Superstation Two Meter - EME - Tropo~~!!

Lets review the distances possible using the various propagation modes at 144 Mhz..
Line of Sight - 0 to 50 miles depending on terrain
Direct Path - 50 to 100 Miles
Tropo enhancement - 100 to 600 Miles or more
Meteor Scatter - 500 to 1400 Miles for the typical MS station
Es - 500 to 3000 Miles during short and infrequent openings
EME - 0 to 500,000 plus Miles

If your 2 meter station outputs 60-100 watts or more to a good 10 element or larger Yagi antenna, and your receiver front end has reasonably low noise, you should be able to work just about any 2m FM repeater in a 100 plus mile range..

In urban and suburban locations going from vertical polarization to horizontal polarization can result in at least a 20 dB gain from the reduction in man-made noise. However, the limiter circuits in an FM receiver are designed to eliminate any AM components of the signal and noise is virtually always AM in nature. Therefore, the improvement in signal quality due to reduction of noise in FM receivers is generally not realized much, if at all, by changing polarization.

However, long term usage of the 2 meter VHF band has shown that horizontal polarization is considerably better for "over the horizon" communications. Therefore, for "weak signal" communications using horizontal polarization rather than vertical polarization results in at least a 20 dB improvement in man-made noise plus the advantage in "over the horizon" propagation.

SSB VERUS FM on 2 Meters: The problem is that a SSB signal with a 10 DB Carrier to noise ratio will make a recovered audio signal with 10 DB signal to noise- a VERY unpleasant signal to listen too. The same power output only fm, due to the FM improvement effect will provide a much better recovered audio signal to noise. The only thing you get on ssb, is a slight area where the ssb can provide a 8-10 db s/n audio where the fm can't. Good luck qso-ing a 8 db s/n on SSB. In my experience, if you cannot make the path on FM, you probably will have to use CW.

The dB "gain" in bandwith would be about 7 dB from SSB when the bandwidth of the FM signal is no more than 500 Hz. Taking into consideration the carrier power which subtracts 3 dB then the effective gain of a very narrow FM signal should be between 3 dB and 4 dB over an SSB signal.

If you like a challenge, the 2 meter band is it! If you want reliable, easy, worldwide Amateur Radio communication, stick to 20 meters. However, if you enjoy a challenging band that changes from moment to moment, 2-meters is just for you! My areas of interest in Ham Radio over the years has been the 2 Meter FM band.The rise of Solar Cycle 24 now the band conditions are open Watch for many types of propagation like tropo, meteor, lightning.

Two Meter FM is probably the easiest VHF band to achieve regular long distance communications, but radio conditions can vary tremendously depending on the time of year. The best time of year can be anytime with tropo, where with low power and simple antennas anyone can work more distance from your station and with very strong signal strengths in both directions. Generally, tropo is more common in the temperate latitudes closer to the tropics. I have from my Kentucky location in the USA over many years have made the common observation that the north (summer)-south (winter) paths seem to be the most common Signals in DXing 2 meter FM repeaters.

2 meters FM is about 100 times more popular than 6 meter FM.

A good 2m FM Radio The Icom IC-2200H

Well I'll just say that these rigs do everything ICOM designed them to do without the D-STAR module without a hesitation. It's only designed to run about 30% duty cycle or less on full power. This came from a technician with Icom. I have yet to blow one up! I've done some silly things along the lines of attempting to transmit with nothing hooked up and Looking back the latter could have been quite catastrophic. If you are looking for a rugged, nearly oops proof 2 meter only rig, this is it. Advantages - It does have 4 power levels up to 65 W and can hit tons of 2m repeaters in the Mid USA region. It does get hot when using 65W. Since I use it as a base rig I mounted a 3" neon cooling fan behind it and now its cool. I feel it's well built and have had no problems with it. Menu system takes some getting used to but is pretty easy. Programming is also fairly easy to do. Sounds great and no trouble with transmit quality and range.

Icom IC-2200H

Worlds longest commerical EME 2 meter FM DX Ancient M2 Beam.

2M8WL-EME provides the user with not just improvements in gain and front to back ratio but also features a robust boom design. The 2M8WL-EME features the same highly reliable, CNC machined, driven element components used on other M2 VHF and UHF yagis. The boom is 55' long and the elements are large diameter for higher gain at 2m frequencies, A single 2M8WL-EME provides the gain requirement to make EME contacts with even the best 4 yagi H frame stations. It passes the echo test by producing its own audible echoes even when pointed up at deep space objects with no ground gain! 7% of your RF signal will be reflected off a space object or planet back to the antenna.

Obviously it is dynamite on FM Tropo!
There's absolutely nothing else like it.

Tropo scatter is the most common form of tropospheric enhancement you hear on the the M2 2M8WL-EME Beam when use in the vertical mode listening to FM 2m repeater DX. Tropo-scatter is always present on the 2M8WL-EME FM Vertical to some degree just about anytime. Tropo scatter at 2 meter FM frequencies is caused by air turbulence, and small changes in temperature, humidity and barometric pressure. The signal is scattered in random fashion. The tiny portion of the transmitted signal that is scattered forward and downward from what is called the "common scattering volume" is responsible for signal paths longer than the normal line-of-sight horizon.

The 55 foot long boom W/20db gain over noise for 2 meter FM beam modified for vertical "FM DX Tropo" has been extensively used by a select few moonbouncers and tropo DX'ing enthusiasts for many years. (Only a few exist today) The clean, narrow 20 degree sharp pattern yields a very good G/T (gain/temperature in K) which, in everyday language, means you hear more signal (20 db) and less noise. It is ideal as a single antenna, the boom is strong. The M2 2M8WL-EME has integrated the computer optimized design with the unique custom driven element T-Match coax jumper, 30 dbi gain is a 1500-X times power input... Tunes Two meter 144-146 mhz FM Vertical Max VSWR 1.5:1.. All hardware is now stainless. By all standards the very long beam is a true thoroughbred among the few VHF 2m high gain 100-X plus times power input beam antennas!

2 meter modified VERTICAL FM TROPO DX'ing BEAM
2 meter modified VERTICAL FM TROPO DX'ing BEAM

Do You Wish To Burn A Hole In The Ionosphere On
The VHF FM DX Band ?

The goal was a powerful amateur solid state Linear for FM DX'ing repeater band.. I purchased this Big powerful linear as-is a non working RF AMP its a 8 KW watts model 32X2SC2879 solid state FM linear.. When I remove the cover at home in my work shop (the kitchen table) I was just amazed at how simple everything looked and such a rugged build.. My goal now was to see if i could get the amplifier to work.. It was so simple to fix the RF amplifier, with in hours the rf linear was just working fine, You can do just about anything with this linear its an amazing RF amplifier... With the unit working perfect at low power into a ***heating range element*** for a Dummy load . I looked the massive powerful built RF Linear over and here is what I had.

Its now a conversion High-Drive model 32X2SC2879 8 KW box FM, chassis, relay, chokes, wiring, and fans, the AMP board is for 32 Transistors (Pills).. It has all the transformers/combiners, ferrite cores, resistors and chokes in place as designed. My transceiver on low power at 10 Watts and drives it perfect. This unit draws 800 amps @ 13.3 VDC, Note use batterys to power this type of Linear, Normal Linear power supplys non regulated will idles at 24 vdc.. Its a short life for your amp.

The reliability of surplus VHF Amplifiers has been phenomenal. Much like the post-WII surplus radio era and later commercial two-way radio surplus era, the potential for a second long lifetime in high-power Linears for the two meter FM Ham & Amateur radio service is compelling.

Solid State amplifier.

Running High Power Two Meter Solid State operation.
The Repeater FM DX Band ?

There are several important things to remember about running high power 2 meter operation. One of these is safety! As we go higher in frequency and power, the distance you should be away from the antenna goes up. When I was using a power amplifier on two meters with the M2 2M8WL-EME, you could feel the heat on the side of your face from 50 feet away. While no scientific study has confirmed the dangers, if you can feel the heat it can't be doing you any good! Doubly so if you or one of your friends has a heart pacemaker or similar device. After all, this is how microwave ovens work; they heat food with RF radiation. Recently, the Mirage division of MFJ Enterprises introduced a new line of 2m amplifiers capable of high output! This brings a whole new level of safety concerns.

It also brings a new level of DC power requirements, to say nothing about antenna power ratings. Looking at this a little deeper, a small 300 watt output, solid state amp will input about 600 watts. At a nominal 13.8 VDC, the current draw is nearly 45-60 amps plus that necessary for the transceiver. If you're planning on running this level of power you need a good power supply or me I use a tractor battery mounted outside my home.

If you intend to use one of these on FM, you'll need to add a fan to keep the heatsink cool. Even then, you should keep transmissions short. Incidentally, running high power FM in an urban setting is overkill, and may make you a few enemies in high density areas where the distances to the next repeater on the same frequency pair are short. Save it for simplex and rural areas.

2m FM Power

Rule of thumb is doubling antenna elevation at VHF produces about
6 dB gain or two full S-Units.

For every "Doubled Boom Length increase", there is a 5 dBI improvement in Forward Gain.

Extraterrestrial Radio Astronomy Dish
440 Mhz UHF

Deep space communication with a 12' TV Satellite Dish And The Latest Computer Software
Amateur--Ham Radio UHF - Parabolic-Antenna @ 36 db gain
The old 12' TV satellite dish now has the power Of a 30' Radio Astronomy dish of 20 years ago
With the computer power, and new noise reduction software of today.

This page shows some of our research that ends up on our Radio Astronomy page here at

Main Site: TV.HTM

The signal received in a radio telescope of a strong source is less than 10-18 watts, i.e., .001 femtowatt. If a typical one-milliwatt garage door opener were operated on the Moon, it would be one of the strongest radio sources in the sky as seen from a radio telescope.[



Technological advances enable a new class of passive radar receivers. These radars have no dedicated transmitter, observing serendipitous scatter of deep space sources. Such radar receivers have very high performance which observes alien broadcasts, and cost far less than conventional radars . The resulting equipment is essentially reduced to simple 12' TV Dish antenna, desktop computers, Alien generic demodulators, and scanner receiver System. Our receive system provides far better range and resolution than any conventional Radio Astronomy system, and is completely free of any range or aliasing problems. Spectacular advances in low-cost computing, software and internet bandwidth have rendered the background audio & picture noise problems easy to solve with digital format software that can receive a perfect signal, free of ghosts, and interference..


I am a licensed USA amateur radio operator (General Class)

As such at 2.4 ghz, I am legally allowed to use Maximum Transmitter Power Output (TPO) of 100 watt or 50dBm. WiFi on channels 1 through 6 (inclusive) as long as i don't interfer with anyone. Since my access point is a WRT54G Linksys WiFi (22mw) RF power and receive system. I will not be running under amateur radio license, if i was then the site must comply with amateur radio rules, you can not use WEP encryption, must enable SSID, communicate with at least one other licensed ham, and broadcast your callsign. This site is operating under the Wifi ISM rules that are allowed to use encryption, but are also restricted to no more than 36dBm (4 watts ERP).

A Web Site For Tinkers.. This is a site dedicated to Ham Radio. If you are into Microwave, UHF, or VHF operation, I trust the information presented will be of interest. The ideals contained on this web site are based on my experience and needs. Your experience and needs may be different than mine. The ideals and hardware listed on this site are for your pleasure, and are not personal endorsements. I am not reimbursed for their appearance, and the opinions expressed about them are mine alone. The exclusion of any company or product is strictly coincidental. The names, brands, model numbers, logos, features, and products appearing herein are registered trademarks and/or copyrights of their respective companies. Please e-mail questions, comments, or suggestions to:

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