Amateur Radio Service


Subpart A-General Provisions
[Current as of July 1, 2001.]
97.1 Basis and purpose.
97.3 Definitions.
97.5 Station license grant required.
97.7 Control operator required.
97.9 Operator license grant.
97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft.
97.13 Restrictions on station location.
97.15 Station antenna structures.
97.17 Application for new license grant.
97.19 Application for a vanity call sign
97.21 Application for a modified or renewed license
grant.
97.23 Mailing address.
97.25 License term.
97.27 FCC modification of station license grant.
97.29 Replacement license grant document.
Subpart B-Station Operation Standards
97.101 General standards.
97.103 Station licensee responsibilities.
97.105 Control operator duties.
97.107 Reciprocal operatng authority.
97.109 Station control.
97.111 Authorized transmissions.
97.113 Prohibited transmissions.
97.115 Third-party communications.
97.117 International communications.
97.119 Station identification.
97.121 Restricted operation.
Subpart C- Special Operations
97.201 Auxiliary station.
97.203 Beacon station.
97.205 Repeater stations.
97.207 Space station.
97.209 Earth station.
97.211 Space telecommand station.
97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station.
97.215 Telecommand of model craft.
97.217 Telemetry.
97.219 Message forwarding system.
97.221 Automatically controlled digital station.
Subpart D-Technical Standards
97.301 Authorized frequency bands.
97.303 Frequency sharing requirements.
97.305 Authorized emission types.
97.307 Emission standards.
97.309 RTTY and data emission codes.
97.311 SS emission types.
97.313 Transmitter power standards.
97.315 Certification of external RF power amplifiers.
97.317 Standards for certification of external RF power
amplifiers.
Subpart E-Providing Emergency Communications
97.401 Operation during a disaster.
97.403 Safety of life and protection of property.
97.405 Station in distress.
97.407 Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES).
Subpart F-Qualifying Examination Systems
97.501 Qualifying for an amateur operator license.
97.503 Element standards.
97.505 Element credit.
97.507 Preparing an examination.
97.509 Administering VE requirements.
97.511 Examinee conduct.
97.513 VE session manager requirements.
97.515 [Reserved]
97.517 [Reserved]
97.519 Coordinating examination sessions.
97.521 VEC qualifications.
97.523 Question pools.
97.525 Accrediting VEs.
97.527 Reimbursement for expenses.

Appendix 1 Places Where the Amateur Service is Regulated by
the FCC

Appendix 2 VEC Regions

97.1 Basis and purpose.
The rules and regulations in this Part are designed to
provide an amateur radio service having a fundamental
purpose as expressed in the following principles:
(a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur
service to the public as a voluntary noncommercial
communication service, particularly with respect to
providing emergency communications.
(b) Continuation and extension of the amateur's proven
ability to contribute to the advancement of the radio art.
(c) Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service
through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the
communications and technical phases of the art.
(d) Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur
radio service of trained operators, technicians, and
electronics experts.
(e) Continuation and extension of the amateur's unique
ability to enhance international goodwill.


97.3 Definitions.
(a) The definitions of terms used in Part 97 are:
(1) Amateur operator. A person holding a written
authorization to be the control operator of an amateur
station.
(2) Amateur radio services. The amateur service, the
amateur-satellite service and the radio amateur civil
emergency service.
(3) Amateur-satellite service. A radiocommunication service
using stations on Earth satellites for the same purpose as
those of the amateur service.
(4) Amateur service. A radiocommunication service for the
purpose of self-training, intercommunication and technical
investigations carried out by amateurs, that is, duly
authorized persons interested in radio technique solely with
a personal aim and without pecuniary interest.
(5) Amateur station. A station in an amateur radio service
consisting of the apparatus necessary for carrying on
radiocommunications.
(6) Automatic control. The use of devices and procedures for
control of a station when it is transmitting so that
compliance with the FCC Rules is achieved without the
control operator being present at a control point.
(7) Auxiliary station. An amateur station, other than in a
message forwarding system, that is transmitting
communications point-to-point within a system of cooperating
amateur stations.
(8) Bandwidth. The width of a frequency band outside of
which the mean power of the transmitted signal is attenuated
at least 26 dB below the mean power of the transmitted
signal within the band.
(9) Beacon. An amateur station transmitting communications
for the purposes of observation of propagation and reception
or other related experimental activities.
(10) Broadcasting. Transmissions intended for reception by
the general public, either direct or relayed.
(11) Call sign system. The method used to select a call sign
for amateur station over-the-air identification purposes.
The call sign systems are:
(i) Sequential call sign system. The call sign is selected
by the FCC from an alphabetized list corresponding to the
geographic region of the licensee's mailing address and
operator class. The call sign is shown on the license. The
FCC will issue public announcements detailing the procedures
of the sequential call sign system.
(ii) Vanity call sign system. The call sign is selected by
the FCC from a list of call signs requested by the licensee.
The call sign is shown on the license. The FCC will issue
public announcements detailing the procedures of the vanity
call sign system.
(iii) Special event call sign system. The call sign is
selected by the station licensee from a list of call signs
shown on a common data base coordinated, maintained and
disseminated by the amateur station special event call sign
data base coordinators. The call sign must have the single
letter prefix K, N or W, followed by a single numeral
through 9, followed by a single letter A through W or Y or Z
(for example K1A). The special event call sign is
substituted for the call sign shown on the station license
grant while the station is transmitting. The FCC will issue
public announcements detailing the procedures of the special
event call sign system.
(12) Control operator. An amateur operator designated by the
licensee of a station to be responsible for the
transmissions from that station to assure compliance with
the FCC Rules.
(13) Control point. The location at which the control
operator function is performed.
(14) CSCE. Certificate of successful completion of an
examination.
(15) CEPT radio-amateur license. A license issued by a
country belonging to the European Conference of Postal and
Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) that has adopted
Recommendation T/R 61-01 (Nice 1985, revised in Paris 1992
and by correspondence August 1992)
(16) Earth station. An amateur station located on, or within
50 km of the Earth's surface intended for communications
with space stations or with other Earth stations by means of
one or more other objects in space.
(17) EIC. Engineer in Charge of an FCC Field Facility.
(18) External RF Power Amplifier. A device capable of
increasing power output when used in conjunction with, but
not an integral part of, a transmitter.
(19) External RF power amplifier kit. A number of electronic
parts, which, when assembled, is an external RF power
amplifier, even if additional parts are required to complete
assembly.
(20) FAA. Federal Aviation Administration.
(21) FCC. Federal Communications Commission.
(22) Frequency coordinator. An entity, recognized in a local
or regional area by amateur operators whose stations are
eligible to be auxiliary or repeater stations, that
recommends transmit/receive channels and associated
operating and technical parameters for such stations in
order to avoid or minimize potential interference.
(23) Harmful interference. Interference which endangers the
functioning of a radionavigation service or of other safety
services or seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly
interrupts a radiocommunication service operating in
accordance with the Radio Regulations.
(24) Indicator. Words, letters or numerals appended to and
separated from the call sign during the station
identification.
(25) Information bulletin. A message directed only to
amateur operators consisting solely of subject matter of
direct interest to the amateur service.
(26) International Morse code. A dot-dash code as defined in
International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee
(CCITT) Recommendation F.1 (1984), Division B, I. Morse
Code.
(27) IARP. International Amateur Radio Permit. A document
issued pursuant to the terms of the Inter-American
Convention on an International Amateur Radio Permit by a
country signatory to that Convention, other than the United
States. Montrouis, Haiti.
(28) ITU. International Telecommunication Union.
(29) Line A. Begins at Aberdeen, WA, running by great circle
arc to the intersection of 48 N, 120 W, thence along
parallel 48 N, to the intersection of 95 W, thence by
great circle arc through the southernmost point of Duluth,
MN, thence by great circle arc to 45 N, 85 W, thence
southward along meridian 85 W, to its intersection with
parallel 41 N, thence along parallel 41 N, to its
intersection with meridian 82 W, thence by great circle arc
through the southernmost point of Bangor, ME, thence by
great circle arc through the southernmost point of
Searsport, ME, at which point it terminates.
(30) Local control. The use of a control operator who
directly manipulates the operating adjustments in the
station to achieve compliance with the FCC Rules.
(31) Message forwarding system. A group of amateur stations
participating in a voluntary, cooperative, interactive
arrangement where communications are sent from the control
operator of an originating station to the control operator
of one or more destination stations by one or more
forwarding stations.
(32) National Radio Quiet Zone. The area in Maryland,
Virginia and West Virginia bounded by 39 15' N on the
north, 78 30' W on the east, 37 30' N on the south and 80
30' W on the west.
(33) Physician. For the purposes of this Part, a person who
is licensed to practice in a place where the amateur service
is regulated by the FCC, as either a Doctor of Medicine (MD)
or a Doctor of Osteopathy (DO).
(34) Question pool. All current examination questions for a
designated written examination element.
(35) Question set. A series of examination questions on a
given examination selected from the question pool.
(36) Radio Regulations. The latest ITU Radio Regulations to
which the United States is a party.
(37) RACES (radio amateur civil emergency service). A radio
service using amateur stations for civil defense
communications during periods of local, regional or national
civil emergencies.
(38) Remote control. The use of a control operator who
indirectly manipulates the operating adjustments in the
station through a control link to achieve compliance with
the FCC Rules.
(39) Repeater. An amateur station that simultaneously
retransmits the transmission of another amateur station on a
different channel or channels.
(40) Space station. An amateur station located more than 50
km above the Earth's surface.
(41) Space telemetry. A one-way transmission from a space
station of measurements made from the measuring instruments
in a spacecraft, including those relating to the functioning
of the spacecraft.
(42) Spurious emission. An emission, on frequencies outside
the necessary bandwidth of a transmission, the level of
which may be reduced without affecting the information being
transmitted.
(43) Telecommand. A one-way transmission to initiate,
modify, or terminate functions of a device at a distance.
(44) Telecommand station. An amateur station that transmits
communications to initiate, modify, or terminate functions
of a space station.
(45) Telemetry. A one-way transmission of measurements at a
distance from the measuring instrument.
(46) Third-party communications. A message from the control
operator (first party) of an amateur station to another
amateur station control operator (second party) on behalf of
another person (third party).
(47) ULS (Universal Licensing System). The consolidated
database, application filing system and processing system
for all Wireless Telecommunications Services.
(48) VE. Volunteer examiner.
(49) VEC. Volunteer-examiner coordinator.
(b) The definitions of technical symbols used in this Part
are:
(1) EHF (extremely high frequency). The frequency range 30-
300 GHz.
(2) HF (high frequency). The frequency range 3-30 MHz.
(3) Hz. Hertz.
(4) m. Meters.
(5) MF (medium frequency). The frequency range 300-3000 kHz.
(6) PEP (peak envelope power). The average power supplied to
the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one RF
cycle at the crest of the modulation envelope taken under
normal operating conditions.
(7) RF. Radio frequency.
(8) SHF (super-high frequency). The frequency range 3-30
GHz.
(9) UHF (ultra-high frequency). The frequency range 300-3000
MHz.
(10) VHF (very-high frequency). The frequency range 30-300
MHz.
(11) W. Watts.
(c) The following terms are used in this Part to indicate
emission types. Refer to 2.201 of the FCC Rules, Emission,
modulation and transmission characteristics, for information
on emission type designators.
(1) CW. International Morse code telegraphy emissions having
designators with A, C, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1 as
the second symbol; A or B as the third symbol; and emissions
J2A and J2B.
(2) Data. Telemetry, telecommand and computer communications
emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R
as the first symbol; 1 as the second symbol; D as the third
symbol; and emission J2D. Only a digital code of a type
specifically authorized in this Part may be transmitted.
(3) Image. Facsimile and television emissions having
designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first
symbol; 1, 2 or 3 as the second symbol; C or F as the third
symbol; and emissions having B as the first symbol; 7, 8 or
9 as the second symbol; W as the third symbol.
(4) MCW. Tone-modulated international Morse code telegraphy
emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H or R as
the first symbol; 2 as the second symbol; A or B as the
third symbol.
(5) Phone. Speech and other sound emissions having
designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first
symbol; 1, 2 or 3 as the second symbol; E as the third
symbol. Also speech emissions having B as the first symbol;
7, 8 or 9 as the second symbol; E as the third symbol. MCW
for the purpose of performing the station identification
procedure, or for providing telegraphy practice interspersed
with speech. Incidental tones for the purpose of selective
calling or alerting or to control the level of a demodulated
signal may also be considered phone.
(6) Pulse. Emissions having designators with K, L, M, P, Q,
V or W as the first symbol; 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 or X as the
second symbol; A, B, C, D, E, F, N, W or X as the third
symbol.
(7) RTTY. Narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy emissions
having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the
first symbol; 1 as the second symbol; B as the third symbol;
and emission J2B. Only a digital code of a type specifically
authorized in this Part may be transmitted.
(8) SS. Spread-spectrum emissions using bandwidth-expansion
modulation emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G,
H, J or R as the first symbol; X as the second symbol; X as
the third symbol.
(9) Test. Emissions containing no information having the
designators with N as the third symbol. Test does not
include pulse emissions with no information or modulation
unless pulse emissions are also authorized in the frequency
band.


97.5 Station license grant required.
(a) The station apparatus must be under the physical control
of a person named in an amateur station license grant on the
ULS consolidated license database or a person authorized for
alien reciprocal operation by 97.107 of this part, before
the station may transmit on any amateur service frequency
from any place that is:
(1) Within 50 km of the Earth's surface and at a place where
the amateur service is regulated by the FCC;
(2) Within 50 km of the Earth's surface and aboard any
vessel or craft that is documented or registered in the
United States; or
(3) More than 50 km above the Earth's surface aboard any
craft that is documented or registered in the United States.
(b) The types of station license grants are:
(1) An operator/primary station license grant. One, but only
one, operator/primary station license grant may be held by
any one person. The primary station license is granted
together with the amateur operator license. Except for a
representative of a foreign government, any person who
qualifies by examination is eligible to apply for an
operator/primary station license grant.
(2) A club station license grant. A club station license
grant may be held only by the person who is the license
trustee designated by an officer of the club. The trustee
must be a person who holds an Amateur Extra, Advanced,
General, Technician Plus, or Technician operator license
grant. The club must be composed of at least four persons
and must have a name, a document of organization,
management, and a primary purpose devoted to amateur service
activities consistent with this part.
(3) A military recreation station license grant. A military
recreation station license grant may be held only by the
person who is the license custodian designated by the
official in charge of the United States military
recreational premises where the station is situated. The
person must not be a representative of a foreign government.
The person need not hold an amateur operator license grant.
(4) A RACES station license grant. A RACES station license
grant may be held only by the person who is the license
custodian designated by the official responsible for the
governmental agency served by that civil defense
organization. The custodian must be the civil defense
official responsible for coordination of all civil defense
activities in the area concerned. The custodian must not be
a representative of a foreign government. The custodian need
not hold an amateur operator license grant.
(c) The person named in the station license grant or who is
authorized for alien reciprocal operation by 97.107 of this
Part may use, in accordance with the applicable rules of
this Part, the transmitting apparatus under the physical
control of the person at places where the amateur service is
regulated by the FCC.
(d) A CEPT radio-amateur license is issued to the person by
the country of which the person is a citizen. The person
must not:
(1) Be a resident alien or citizen of the United States,
regardless of any other citizenship also held;
(2) Hold an FCC-issued amateur operator license nor
reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee;
(3) Be a prior amateur service licensee whose FCC-issued
license was revoked, suspended for less than the balance of
the license term and the suspension is still in effect,
suspended for the balance of the license term and
relicensing has not taken place, or surrendered for
cancellation following notice of revocation, suspension or
monetary forfeiture proceedings; or
(4) Be the subject of a cease and desist order that relates
to amateur service operation and which is still in effect.
(e) An IARP is issued to the person by the country of which
the person is a citizen. The person must not:
(1) Be a resident alien or citizen of the United States,
regardless of any other citizenship also held;
(2) Hold an FCC-issued amateur operator license nor
reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee;
(3) Be a prior amateur service licensee whose FCC-issued
license was revoked, suspended for less than the balance of
the license term and the suspension is still in effect,
suspended for the balance of the license term and
relicensing has not taken place, or surrendered for
cancellation following notice of revocation, suspension or
monetary forfeiture proceedings; or
(4) Be the subject of a cease and desist order that relates
to amateur service operation and which is still in effect.


97.7 Control operation required.
When transmitting, each amateur station must have a control
operator. The control operator must be a person:
(a) For whom an amateur operator/primary station license
grant appears on the ULS consolidated licensee database, or
(b) Who is authorized for alien reciprocal operation by
97.107 of this part


97.9 Operator license.
(a) The classes of amateur operator license grants are:
Novice, Technician, Technician Plus (until such licenses
expire, a Technician Class license granted before February
14, 1991, is considered a Technician Plus Class license),
General, Advanced, and Amateur Extra. The person named in
the operator license grant is authorized to be the control
operator of an amateur station with the privileges
authorized to the operator class specified on the license
grant.
(b) The person named in an operator license grant of Novice,
Technician, Technician Plus, General or Advanced Class, who
has properly submitted to the administering VEs a FCC Form
605 document requesting examination for an operator license
grant of a higher class, and who holds a CSCE indicating
that the person has completed the necessary examinations
within the previous 365 days, is authorized to exercise the
rights and privileges of the higher operator class until
final disposition of the application or until 365 days
following the passing of the examination, whichever comes
first.


97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft.
(a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on
a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of the
ship or pilot in command of the aircraft.
(b) The station must be separate from and independent of all
other radio apparatus installed on the ship or aircraft,
except a common antenna may be shared with a voluntary ship
radio installation. The station's transmissions must not
cause interference to any other apparatus installed on the
ship or aircraft.
(c) The station must not constitute a hazard to the safety
of life or property. For a station aboard an aircraft, the
apparatus shall not be operated while the aircraft is
operating under Instrument Flight Rules, as defined by the
FAA, unless the station has been found to comply with all
applicable FAA Rules.


97.13 Restrictions on station location.
(a) Before placing an amateur station on land of
environmental importance or that is significant in American
history, architecture or culture, the licensee may be
required to take certain actions prescribed by 1.1305-
1.1319 of this chapter.
(b) A station within 1600 m (1 mile) of an FCC monitoring
facility must protect that facility from harmful
interference. Failure to do so could result in imposition of
operating restrictions upon the amateur station by a
District Director pursuant to 97.121 of this Part.
Geographical coordinates of the facilities that require
protection are listed in 0.121(c) of this chapter.
(c) Before causing or allowing an amateur station to
transmit from any place where the operation of the station
could cause human exposure to RF electromagnetic field
levels in excess of those allowed under 1.1310 of this
chapter, the licensee is required to take certain actions.
(1) The licensee must perform the routine RF environmental
evaluation prescribed by 1.1307(b) of this chapter, if the
power of the licensee's station exceeds the limits given in
the following table:

Wavelength Band Evaluation Required if
Power* (watts) Exceeds:
MF 160m 500
HF 80m 500
75m 500
40m 500
30m 425
20m 225
17m 125
15m 100
12m 75
10m 50
VHF (all bands)
50
UHF 70cm 70
33cm 150
23cm 200
13cm 250
SHF (all bands)
250
EHF (all bands)
250

Repeater stations non-building-mounted antennas: height
(all bands) above ground level to lowest point of
antenna < 10 m and power > 500 W ERP
building-mounted antennas: power > 500 W ERP
* Power = PEP input to antenna except, for repeater stations
only, power exclusion is based on ERP (effective radiated
power).

(2) If the routine environmental evaluation indicates that
the RF electromagnetic fields could exceed the limits
contained in 1.1310 of this chapter in accessible areas,
the licensee must take action to prevent human exposure to
such RF electromagnetic fields. Further information on
evaluating compliance with these limits can be found in the
FCC's OET Bulletin Number 65, "Evaluating Compliance with
FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency
Electromagnetic Fields."


97.15 Station antenna structures.
(a) Owners of certain antenna structures more than 60.96
meters
(200 feet) above ground level at the site or located near or
at a public use airport must notify the Federal Aviation
Administration and register with the Commission as required
by Part 17 of this chapter.
(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna
structure may be erected at heights and dimensions
sufficient to accommodate amateur service communications.
[State and local regulation of a station antenna structure
must not preclude amateur service communications. Rather, it
must reasonably accommodate such communications and must
constitute the minimum practicable regulation to accomplish
the state or local authority's legitimate purpose. See PRB-
1, 101 FCC 2d 952 (1985) for details.]


97.17 Application for new license grant.
(a) Any qualified person is eligible to apply for a new
operator/primary station, club station or military
recreation station license grant. No new license grant will
be issued for a Novice, Technician Plus, or Advanced Class
operator/primary station or RACES station.
(b) Each application for a new amateur service license grant
must be filed with the FCC as follows:
(1) Each candidate for an amateur radio operator license
which requires the applicant to pass one or more examination
elements must present the administering VEs with all
information required by the rules prior to the examination.
The VEs may collect all necessary information in any manner
of their choosing, including creating their own forms.
(2) For a new club or military recreation station license
grant, each applicant must present all information required
by the rules to an amateur radio organization having tax-
exempt status under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal
Revenue Code of 1986 that provides voluntary, uncompensated
and unreimbursed services in providing club and military
recreation station call signs ("Club Station Call Sign
Administrator'') who must submit the information to the FCC
in an electronic batch file. The Club Station Call Sign
Administrator may collect the information required by these
rules in any manner of their choosing, including creating
their own forms. The Club Station Call Sign Administrator
must retain the applicants information for at least 15
months and make it available to the FCC upon request. The
FCC will issue public announcements listing the qualified
organizations that have completed a pilot autogrant batch
filing project and are authorized to serve as a Club Station
Call Sign Administrator.
(c) No person shall obtain or attempt to obtain, or assist
another person to obtain or attempt to obtain, an amateur
service license grant by fraudulent means.
(d) One unique call sign will be shown on the license grant
of each new primary, club and military recreation station.
The call sign will be selected by the sequential call sign
system.


97.19 Application for a vanity call sign.
(a) The person named in an operator/primary station license
grant or in a club station license grant is eligible to make
application for modification of the license grant, or the
renewal thereof, to show a call sign selected by the vanity
call sign system. RACES and military recreation stations are
not eligible for a vanity call sign.
(b) Each application for a modification of an
operator/primary or club station license grant, or the
renewal thereof, to show a call sign selected by the vanity
call sign system must be filed in accordance with 1.913 of
this chapter.
(c) Unassigned call signs are available to the vanity call
sign system with the following exceptions:
(1) A call sign shown on an expired license grant is not
available to the vanity call sign system for 2 years
following the expiration of the license.
(2) A call sign shown on a surrendered, revoked, set aside,
canceled, or voided license grant is not available to the
vanity call sign system for 2 years following the date such
action is taken.
(3) Except for an applicant who is the spouse, child,
grandchild, stepchild, parent, grandparent, stepparent,
brother, sister, stepbrother, stepsister, aunt, uncle,
niece, nephew, or in-law, and except for an applicant who is
a club station license trustee acting with the written
consent of at least one relative, as listed above, of a
person now deceased, the call sign shown on the license of
person now deceased is not available to the vanity call sign
system for 2 years following the person's death, or for 2
years following the expiration of the license grant,
whichever is sooner.
(d) The vanity call sign requested by an applicant must be
selected from the group of call signs corresponding to the
same or lower class of operator license held by the
applicant as designated in the sequential call sign system.
(1) The applicant must request that the call sign shown on
the license grant be vacated and provide a list of up to 25
call signs in order of preference.
(2) The first assignable call sign from the applicant's list
will be shown on the license grant. When none of those call
signs are assignable, the call sign vacated by the applicant
will be shown on the license grant.
(3) Vanity call signs will be selected from those call signs
assignable at the time the application is processed by the
FCC.
(4) A call sign designated under the sequential call sign
system for Alaska, Hawaii, Caribbean Insular Areas, and
Pacific Insular areas will be assigned only to a primary or
club station whose licensee's mailing address is in the
corresponding state, commonwealth, or island. This
limitation does not apply to an applicant for the call sign
as the spouse, child, grandchild, stepchild, parent,
grandparent, stepparent, brother, sister, stepbrother,
stepsister, aunt, uncle, niece, nephew, or in-law, of the
former holder now deceased.


97.21 Application for a modified or renewed license.
(a) A person holding a valid amateur station license grant:
(1) Must apply to the FCC for a modification of the license
grant as necessary to show the correct mailing address,
licensee name, club name, license trustee name or license
custodian name in accordance with 1.913 of this chapter.
For a club, military recreation or RACES station license
grant, it must be presented in document form to a Club
Station Call Sign Administrator who must submit the
information thereon to the FCC in an electronic batch file.
The Club Station Call Sign Administrator must retain the
collected information for at least 15 months and make it
available to the FCC upon request.
(2) May apply to the FCC for a modification of the
operator/primary station license grant to show a higher
operator class. Applicants must present the administering
VEs with all information required by the rules prior to the
examination. The VEs may collect all necessary information
in any manner of their choosing, including creating their
own forms.
(3) May apply to the FCC for renewal of the license grant
for another term in accordance with 1.913 of this chapter.
Application for renewal of a Technician Plus Class
operator/primary station license will be processed as an
application for renewal of a Technician Class
operator/primary station license.
(i) For a station license grant showing a call sign
obtained through the vanity call sign system, the
application must be filed in accordance with 97.19 of this
Part in order to have the vanity call sign reassigned to the
station.
(ii) For a primary station license grant showing a call sign
obtained through the sequential call sign system, and for a
primary station license grant showing a call sign obtained
through the vanity call sign system but whose grantee does
not want to have the vanity call sign reassigned to the
station, the application must be filed with the FCC in
accordance with 1.913 of this chapter. When the application
has been received by the FCC on or before the license
expiration date, the license operating authority is
continued until the final disposition of the application.
(iii) For a club station or military recreation station
license grant showing a call sign obtained through the
sequential call sign system, and for a club or military
recreation station license grant showing a call sign
obtained through the vanity call sign system but whose
grantee does not want to have the vanity call sign
reassigned to the station, the application must be presented
in document form to a Club Station Call Sign Administrator
who must submit the information thereon to the FCC in an
electronic batch file. The Club Station Call Sign
Administrator must retain the collected information for at
least 15 months and make it available to the FCC upon
request. RACES station license grants will not be renewed.
(b) A person whose amateur station license grant has expired
may apply to the FCC for renewal of the license grant for
another term during a 2 year filing grace period. The
application must be received at the address specified above
prior to the end of the grace period. Unless and until the
license grant is renewed, no privileges in this Part are
conferred.
(c) A call sign obtained under the sequential or vanity call
sign system will be reassigned to the station upon renewal
or modification of a station license.


97.23 Mailing address.
Each license grant must show the grantee's correct name and
mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area
where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC and where
the grantee can receive mail delivery by the United States
Postal Service. Revocation of the station license or
suspension of the operator license may result when
correspondence from the FCC is returned as undeliverable
because the grantee failed to provide the correct mailing
address.


97.25 License term.
An amateur service license is normally granted for a 10-year
term.


97.27 FCC modification of station license grant.
(a) The FCC may modify a station license grant, either for a
limited time or for the duration of the term thereof, if it
determines:
(1) That such action will promote the public interest,
convenience, and necessity; or
(2) That such action will promote fuller compliance with the
provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, or
of any treaty ratified by the United States.
(b) When the FCC makes such a determination, it will issue
an order of modification. The order will not become final
until the licensee is notified in writing of the proposed
action and the grounds and reasons therefor. The licensee
will be given reasonable opportunity of no less than 30 days
to protest the modification; except that, where safety of
life or property is involved, a shorter period of notice may
be provided. Any protest by a licensee of an FCC order of
modification will be handled in accordance with the
provisions of 47 U.S.C. 316.


97.29 Replacement license grant document.
Each grantee whose amateur station license grant document is
lost, mutilated or destroyed may apply to the FCC for a
replacement in accordance with 1.913 of this chapter.


97.101 General standards.
(a) In all respects not specifically covered by FCC Rules
each amateur station must be operated in accordance with
good engineering and good amateur practice.
(b) Each station licensee and each control operator must
cooperate in selecting transmitting channels and in making
the most effective use of the amateur service frequencies.
No frequency will be assigned for the exclusive use of any
station.
(c) At all times and on all frequencies, each control
operator must give priority to stations providing emergency
communications, except to stations transmitting
communications for training drills and tests in RACES.
(d) No amateur operator shall willfully or maliciously
interfere with or cause interference to any radio
communication or signal.


97.103 Station licensee responsibilities.
(a) The station licensee is responsible for the proper
operation of the station in accordance with the FCC Rules.
When the control operator is a different amateur operator
than the station licensee, both persons are equally
responsible for proper operation of the station.
(b) The station licensee must designate the station control
operator. The FCC will presume that the station licensee is
also the control operator, unless documentation to the
contrary is in the station records.
(c) The station licensee must make the station and the
station records available for inspection upon request by an
FCC representative. When deemed necessary by an EIC to
assure compliance with FCC Rules, the station licensee must
maintain a record of station operations containing such
items of information as the EIC may require in accord with
0.314(x) of the FCC Rules.


97.105 Control operator duties.
(a) The control operator must ensure the immediate proper
operation of the station, regardless of the type of control.
(b) A station may only be operated in the manner and to the
extent permitted by the privileges authorized for the class
of operator license held by the control operator.


97.107 Reciprocal operating authority.
A non-citizen of the United States ("alien") holding an
amateur service authorization granted by the alien's
government is authorized to be the control operator of an
amateur station located at places where the amateur service
is regulated by the FCC, provided there is in effect a
multilateral or bilateral reciprocal operating arrangement,
to which the United States and the alien's government are
parties, for amateur service operation on a reciprocal
basis. The FCC will issue public announcements listing the
countries with which the United States has such an
arrangement. No citizen of the United States or person
holding an FCC amateur operator/primary station license
grant is eligible for the reciprocal operating authority
granted by this section. The privileges granted to a control
operator under this authorization are:
(a) For an amateur service license granted by the Government
of Canada:
(1) The terms of the Convention Between the United States
and Canada (TIAS No. 2508) Relating to the Operation by
Citizens of Either Country of Certain Radio Equipment or
Stations in the Other Country;
(2) The operating terms and conditions of the amateur
service license issued by the Government of Canada; and
(3) The applicable rules of this part, but not to exceed the
control operator privileges of an FCC-granted Amateur Extra
Class operator license.
(b) For an amateur service license granted by any country,
other than Canada, with which the United States has a
multilateral or bilateral agreement:
(1) The terms of the agreement between the alien's
government and the United States;
(2) The operating terms and conditions of the amateur
service license granted by the alien's government;
(3) The applicable rules of this part, but not to exceed the
control operator privileges of an FCC-granted Amateur Extra
Class operator license; and
(c) At any time the FCC may, in its discretion, modify,
suspend or cancel the reciprocal operating authority granted
to any person by this section.


97.109 Station control.
(a) Each amateur station must have at least one control
point.
(b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control
operator must be at the control point. Any station may be
locally controlled.
(c) When a station is being remotely controlled, the control
operator must be at the control point. Any station may be
remotely controlled.
(d) When a station is being automatically controlled, the
control operator need not be at the control point. Only
stations specifically designated elsewhere in this Part may
be automatically controlled. Automatic control must cease
upon notification by an EIC that the station is transmitting
improperly or causing harmful interference to other
stations. Automatic control must not be resumed without
prior approval of the EIC.
(e) No station may be automatically controlled while
transmitting third party communications, except a station
transmitting a RTTY or data emission. All messages that are
retransmitted must originate at a station that is being
locally or remotely controlled.


97.111 Authorized transmissions.
(a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of
two-way communications:
(1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with other
stations in the amateur service, except those in any country
whose administration has given notice that it objects to
such communications. The FCC will issue public notices of
current arrangements for international communications;
(2) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a
station in another FCC-regulated service while providing
emergency communications;
(3) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a
United States government station, necessary to providing
communications in RACES; and
(4) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a
station in a service not regulated by the FCC, but
authorized by the FCC to communicate with amateur stations.
An amateur station may exchange messages with a
participating United States military station during an Armed
Forces Day Communications Test.
(b) In addition to one-way transmissions specifically
authorized elsewhere in this Part, an amateur station may
transmit the following types of one-way communications:
(1) Brief transmissions necessary to make adjustments to the
station;
(2) Brief transmissions necessary to establishing two-way
communications with other stations;
(3) Telecommand;
(4) Transmissions necessary to providing emergency
communications;
(5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning,
or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code;
(6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information
bulletins;
(7) Transmissions of telemetry.


97.113 Prohibited transmissions.
(a) No amateur station shall transmit:
(1) Communications specifically prohibited elsewhere in this
Part;
(2) Communications for hire or for material compensation,
direct or indirect, paid or promised, except as otherwise
provided in these rules;
(3) Communications in which the station licensee or control
operator has a pecuniary interest, including communications
on behalf of an employer. Amateur operators may, however,
notify other amateur operators of the availability for sale
or trade of apparatus normally used in an amateur station,
provided that such activity is not conducted on a regular
basis;
(4) Music using a phone emission except as specifically
provided elsewhere in this Section; communications intended
to facilitate a criminal act; messages in codes or ciphers
intended to obscure the meaning thereof, except as otherwise
provided herein; obscene or indecent words or language; or
false or deceptive messages, signals or identification;
(5) Communications, on a regular basis, which could
reasonably be furnished alternatively through other radio
services.
(b) An amateur station shall not engage in any form of
broadcasting, nor may an amateur station transmit one-way
communications except as specifically provided in these
rules; nor shall an amateur station engage in any activity
related to program production or news gathering for
broadcasting purposes, except that communications directly
related to the immediate safety of human life or the
protection of property may be provided by amateur stations
to broadcasters for dissemination to the public where no
other means of communication is reasonably available before
or at the time of the event.
(c) A control operator may accept compensation as an
incident of a teaching position during periods of time when
an amateur station is used by that teacher as a part of
classroom instruction at an educational institution.
(d) The control operator of a club station may accept
compensation for the periods of time when the station is
transmitting telegraphy practice or information bulletins,
provided that the station transmits such telegraphy practice
and bulletins for at least 40 hours per week; schedules
operations on at least six amateur service MF and HF bands
using reasonable measures to maximize coverage; where the
schedule of normal operating times and frequencies is
published at least 30 days in advance of the actual
transmissions; and where the control operator does not
accept any direct or indirect compensation for any other
service as a control operator.
(e) No station shall retransmit programs or signals
emanating from any type of radio station other than an
amateur station, except propagation and weather forecast
information intended for use by the general public and
originated from United States Government stations and
communications, including incidental music, originating on
United States Government frequencies between a space shuttle
and its associated Earth stations. Prior approval for
shuttle retransmissions must be obtained from the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration. Such retransmissions
must be for the exclusive use of amateur operators.
Propagation, weather forecasts, and shuttle retransmissions
may not be conducted on a regular basis, but only
occasionally, as an incident of normal amateur radio
communications.
(f) No amateur station, except an auxiliary, repeater or
space station, may automatically retransmit the radio
signals of other amateur stations.


97.115 Third party communications.
(a) An amateur station may transmit messages for a third
party to:
(1) Any station within the jurisdiction of the United
States.
(2) Any station within the jurisdiction of any foreign
government whose administration has made arrangements with
the United States to allow amateur stations to be used for
transmitting international communications on behalf of third
parties. No station shall transmit messages for a third
party to any station within the jurisdiction of any foreign
government whose administration has not made such an
arrangement. This prohibition does not apply to a message
for any third party who is eligible to be a control operator
of the station.
(b) The third party may participate in stating the message
where:
(1) The control operator is present at the control point and
is continuously monitoring and supervising the third party's
participation; and
(2) The third party is not a prior amateur service licensee
whose license was revoked; suspended for less than the
balance of the license term and the suspension is still in
effect; suspended for the balance of the license term and
relicensing has not taken place; or surrendered for
cancellation following notice of revocation, suspension or
monetary forfeiture proceedings. The third party may not be
the subject of a cease and desist order which relates to
amateur service operation and which is still in effect.
(c) At the end of an exchange of international third party
communications, the station must also transmit in the
station identification procedure the call sign of the
station with which a third party message was exchanged.


97.117 International communications.
Transmissions to a different country, where permitted, shall
be made in plain language and shall be limited to messages
of a technical nature relating to tests, and, to remarks of
a personal character for which, by reason of their
unimportance, recourse to the public telecommunications
service is not justified.


97.119 Station identification.
(a) Each amateur station, except a space station or
telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on
its transmitting channel at the end of each communication,
and at least every ten minutes during a communication, for
the purpose of clearly making the source of the
transmissions from the station known to those receiving the
transmissions. No station may transmit unidentified
communications or signals, or transmit as the station call
sign, any call sign not authorized to the station.
(b) The call sign must be transmitted with an emission
authorized for the transmitting channel in one of the
following ways:
(1) By a CW emission. When keyed by an automatic device used
only for identification, the speed must not exceed 20 words
per minute;
(2) By a phone emission in the English language. Use of a
standard phonetic alphabet as an aid for correct station
identification is encouraged;
(3) By a RTTY emission using a specified digital code when
all or part of the communications are transmitted by a RTTY
or data emission;
(4) By an image emission conforming to the applicable
transmission standards, either color or monochrome, of
73.682(a) of the FCC Rules when all or part of the
communications are transmitted in the same image emission.
(c) One or more indicators may be included with the call
sign. Each indicator must be separated from the call sign by
the slant mark (/) or by any suitable word that denotes the
slant mark. If an indicator is self-assigned, it must be
included before, after, or both before and after, the call
sign. No self-assigned indicator may conflict with any other
indicator specified by the FCC Rules or with any prefix
assigned to another country.
(d) When transmitting in conjunction with an event of
special significance, a station may substitute for its
assigned call sign a special event call sign as shown for
that station for that period of time on the common data base
coordinated, maintained and disseminated by the special
event call sign data base coordinators. Additionally, the
station must transmit its assigned call sign at least once
per hour during such transmissions.
(e) When the operator license class held by the control
operator exceeds that of the station licensee, an indicator
consisting of the call sign assigned to the control
operator's station must be included after the call sign.
(f) When the control operator who is exercising the rights
and privileges authorized by 97.9(b) of this Part, an
indicator must be included after the call sign as follows:
(1) For a control operator who has requested a license
modification from Novice to Technician Class: KT;
(2) For a control operator who has requested a license
modification from Novice, Technician or Technician Plus
Class to General Class: AG;
(3) For a control operator who has requested a license
modification from Novice, Technician, Technician Plus,
General, or Advanced Class operator to Amateur Extra Class:
AE.
(g) When the station is transmitting under the authority of


97.107 of this part, an indicator consisting of the
appropriate letter-numeral designating the station location
must be included before the call sign that was issued to the
station by the country granting the license. For an amateur
service license granted by the Government of Canada,
however, the indicator must be included after the call sign.
At least once during each intercommunication, the
identification announcement must include the geographical
location as nearly as possible by city and state,
commonwealth or possession.


97.121 Restricted operation.
(a) If the operation of an amateur station causes general
interference to the reception of transmissions from stations
operating in the domestic broadcast service when receivers
of good engineering design, including adequate selectivity
characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and
this fact is made known to the amateur station licensee, the
amateur station shall not be operated during the hours from
8 p.m. to 10:30 p.m., local time, and on Sunday for the
additional period from 10:30 a.m. until 1 p.m., local time,
upon the frequency or frequencies used when the interference
is created.
(b) In general, such steps as may be necessary to minimize
interference to stations operating in other services may be
required after investigation by the FCC.



SUBPART C-SPECIAL OPERATIONS


97.201 Auxiliary station.
(a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a
Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur
Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A
holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced
or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be the control
operator of an auxiliary station, subject to the privileges
of the class of operator license held.
(b) An auxiliary station may transmit only on the 1.25 m and
shorter wavelength bands, except the 219-220 MHz, 222.000-
222.150 MHz, 431-433 MHz and 435-438 MHz segments.
(c) Where an auxiliary station causes harmful interference
to another auxiliary station, the licensees are equally and
fully responsible for resolving the interference unless one
station's operation is recommended by a frequency
coordinator and the other station's is not. In that case,
the licensee of the non-coordinated auxiliary station has
primary responsibility to resolve the interference.
(d) An auxiliary station may be automatically controlled.
(e) An auxiliary station may transmit one-way
communications.


97.203 Beacon station.
(a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a
Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur
Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A holder of a
Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur
Extra Class operator license may be the control operator of
a beacon, subject to the privileges of the class of operator
license held.
(b) A beacon must not concurrently transmit on more than 1
channel in the same amateur service frequency band, from the
same station location.
(c) The transmitter power of a beacon must not exceed 100 W.
(d) A beacon may be automatically controlled while it is
transmitting on the 28.20-28.30 MHz, 50.06-50.08 MHz,
144.275-144.300 MHz, 222.05-222.06 MHz, or 432.300-432.400
MHz segments, or on the 33 cm and shorter wavelength bands.
(e) Before establishing an automatically controlled beacon
in the National Radio Quiet Zone or before changing the
transmitting frequency, transmitter power, antenna height or
directivity, the station licensee must give written
notification thereof to the Interference Office, National
Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV
24944.
(1) The notification must include the geographical
coordinates of the antenna, antenna ground elevation above
mean sea level (AMSL), antenna center of radiation above
ground level (AGL), antenna directivity, proposed frequency,
type of emission, and transmitter power.
(2) If an objection to the proposed operation is received by
the FCC from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at
Green Bank, Pocahontas County, WV, for itself or on behalf
of the Naval Research Laboratory at Sugar Grove, Pendleton
County, WV, within 20 days from the date of notification,
the FCC will consider all aspects of the problem and take
whatever action is deemed appropriate.
(f) A beacon must cease transmissions upon notification by
an EIC that the station is operating improperly or causing
undue interference to other operations. The beacon may not
resume transmitting without prior approval of the EIC.
(g) A beacon may transmit one-way communications.
(h) The provisions of this paragraph do not apply to beacons
that transmit on the 1.2 cm or shorter wavelength bands.
Before establishing an automatically controlled beacon
within 16 km (10 miles) of the Arecibo Observatory or before
changing the transmitting frequency, transmitter power,
antenna height or directivity of an existing beacon, the
station licensee must give written notification thereof to
the Interference Office, Arecibo Observatory, Post Office
Box 995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 00613, in writing or
electronically, of the technical parameters of the proposal.
Licensees who choose to transmit information electronically
should e-mail to prcz@naic.edu
(1) The notification shall state the geographical
coordinates of the antenna (NAD-83 datum), antenna height
above mean sea level (AMSL), antenna center of radiation
above ground level (AGL), antenna directivity and gain,
proposed frequency and FCC Rule Part, type of emission,
effective radiated power, and whether the proposed use is
itinerant. Licensees may wish to consult interference
guidelines provided by Cornell University.
(2) If an objection to the proposed operation is received by
the FCC from the Arecibo Observatory, Arecibo, Puerto Rico,
within 20 days from the date of notification, the FCC will
consider all aspects of the problem and take whatever action
is deemed appropriate.


97.205 Repeater stations.
(a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a
Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class
operator license may be a repeater. A holder of a
Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class
operator license may be the control operator of a repeater,
subject to the privileges of the class of operator license
held.
(b) A repeater may receive and retransmit only on the 10 m
and shorter wavelength frequency bands except the 28.0-29.5
MHz, 50.0-51.0 MHz, 144.0-144.5 MHz, 145.5-146.0 MHz,
222.00-222.15 MHz, 431.0-433.0 MHz and 435.0-438.0 MHz
segments.
(c) Where the transmissions of a repeater cause harmful
interference to another repeater, the two station licensees
are equally and fully responsible for resolving the
interference unless the operation of one station is
recommended by a frequency coordinator and the operation of
the other station is not. In that case, the licensee of the
noncoordinated repeater has primary responsibility to
resolve the interference.
(d) A repeater may be automatically controlled.
(e) Ancillary functions of a repeater that are available to
users on the input channel are not considered remotely
controlled functions of the station. Limiting the use of a
repeater to only certain user stations is permissible.
(f) [Reserved]
(g) The control operator of a repeater that retransmits
inadvertently communications that violate the rules in this
Part is not accountable for the violative communications.


97.207 Space station.
(a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of
any class operator license may be the control operator of a
space station, subject to the privileges of the class of
operator license held by the control operator.
(b) A space station must be capable of effecting a cessation
of transmissions by telecommand whenever such cessation is
ordered by the FCC.
(c) The following frequency bands and segments are
authorized to space stations:
(1) The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm
and
1 mm bands; and
(2) The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-438
MHz, 1260-1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.83-
5.85 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments.
(d) A space station may automatically retransmit the radio
signals of Earth stations and other space stations.
(e) A space station may transmit one-way communications.
(f) Space telemetry transmissions may consist of specially
coded messages intended to facilitate communications or
related to the function of the spacecraft.
(g) The license grantee of each space station must make two
written pre-space station notifications to the International
Bureau, FCC, Washington, DC 20554. Each notification must be
in accord with the provisions of Articles 11 and 13 of the
Radio Regulations.
(1) The first notification is required no less than 27
months prior to initiating space station transmissions and
must specify the information required by Appendix 4, and
Resolution No. 642 of the Radio Regulations.
(2) The second notification is required no less than 5
months prior to initiating space station transmissions and
must specify the information required by Appendix 3 and
Resolution No. 642 of the Radio Regulations.
(h) The license grantee of each space station must make a
written in-space station notification to the International
Bureau no later than 7 days following initiation of space
station transmissions. The notification must update the
information contained in the pre-space notification.
(i) The license grantee of each space station must make a
written post-space station notification to the International
Bureau no later than 3 months after termination of the space
station transmissions. When the termination is ordered by
the FCC, notification is required no later than 24 hours
after termination.


97.209 Earth station.
(a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of
any class operator license may be the control operator of an
Earth station, subject to the privileges of the class of
operator license held by the control operator.
(b) The following frequency bands and segments are
authorized to Earth stations:
(1) The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm
and
1 mm bands; and
(2) The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-438
MHz, 1260-1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.65-
5.67 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments.
97.211 Space telecommand station.
(a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a
space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand
station for that space station, subject to the privileges of
the class of operator license held by the control operator.
(b) A telecommand station may transmit special codes
intended to obscure the meaning of telecommand messages to
the station in space operation.
(c) The following frequency bands and segments are
authorized to telecommand stations:
(1) The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm
and
1 mm bands; and
(2) The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-438
MHz, 1260-1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.65-
5.67 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments.
(d) A telecommand station may transmit one-way
communications.


97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station.
An amateur station on or within 50 km of the Earth's surface
may be under telecommand where:
(a) There is a radio or wireline control link between the
control point and the station sufficient for the control
operator to perform his/her duties. If radio, the control
link must use an auxiliary station. A control link using a
fiber optic cable or another telecommunication service is
considered wireline.
(b) Provisions are incorporated to limit transmission by the
station to a period of no more than 3 minutes in the event
of malfunction in the control link.
(c) The station is protected against making, willfully or
negligently, unauthorized transmissions.
(d) A photocopy of the station license and a label with the
name, address, and telephone number of the station licensee
and at least one designated control operator is posted in a
conspicuous place at the station location.


97.215 Telecommand of model craft.
An amateur station transmitting signals to control a model
craft may be operated as follows:
(a) The station identification procedure is not required for
transmissions directed only to the model craft, provided
that a label indicating the station call sign and the
station licensee's name and address is affixed to the
station transmitter.
(b) The control signals are not considered codes or ciphers
intended to obscure the meaning of the communication.
(c) The transmitter power must not exceed 1 W.


97.217 Telemetry.
Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50
km of the Earth's surface is not considered to be codes or
ciphers intended to obscure the meaning of communications.


97.219 Message forwarding system.
(a) Any amateur station may participate in a message
forwarding system, subject to the privileges of the class of
operator license held.
(b) For stations participating in a message forwarding
system, the control operator of the station originating a
message is primarily accountable for any violation of the
rules in this Part contained in the message.
(c) Except as noted in paragraph (d) of this section, for
stations participating in a message forwarding system, the
control operators of forwarding stations that retransmit
inadvertently communications that violate the rules in this
Part are not accountable for the violative communications.
They are, however, responsible for discontinuing such
communications once they become aware of their presence.
(d) For stations participating in a message forwarding
system, the control operator of the first forwarding station
must:
(1) Authenticate the identity of the station from which it
accepts communication on behalf of the system; or
(2) Accept accountability for any violation of the rules in
this Part contained in messages it retransmits to the
system.


97.221 Automatically controlled digital station.
(a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary
station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth
station, a space station, or a space telecommand station.
(b) A station may be automatically controlled while
transmitting a RTTY or data emission on the 6 m or shorter
wavelength bands, and on the 28.120-28.189 MHz, 24.925-
24.930 MHz, 21.090-21.100 MHz, 18.105-18.110 MHz, 14.0950-
14.0995 MHz, 14.1005-14.112 MHz, 10.140-10.150 MHz, 7.100-
7.105 MHz, or 3.620-3.635 MHz segments.
(c) A station may be automatically controlled while
transmitting a RTTY or data emission on any other frequency
authorized for such emission types provided that:
(1) The station is responding to interrogation by a station
under local or remote control; and
(2) No transmission from the automatically controlled
station occupies a bandwidth of more than 500 Hz.



SUBPART D-TECHNICAL STANDARDS


97.301 Authorized frequency bands.
The following transmitting frequency bands are available to
an amateur station located within 50 km of the Earth's
surface, within the specified ITU Region, and outside any
area where the amateur service is regulated by any authority
other than the FCC.
(a) For a station having a control operator who has been
granted a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced, or
Amateur Extra Class operator license or who holds a CEPT
radio-amateur license or IARP of any class:

Wavelength ITU ITU ITU Sharing
band Region 1 Region 2 Region 3
requirements
See 97.303,
Paragraph:
VHF MHz MHz MHz
6 m - 50-54 50-54 (a)
2 m 144-146 144-148 144-148 (a)
1.25 m - 219-220 - (a), (e)
-do- - 222-225 - (a)
UHF MHz MHz MHz
70 cm 430-440 420-450 420-450 (a), (b), (f)
33 cm - 902-928 - (a), (b), (g)
23 cm 1240-1300 1240-1300 1240-1300 (h), (i)
13 cm 2300-2310 2300-2310 2300-2310 (a), (b), (j)
-do- 2390-2450 2390-2450 2390-2450 (a), (b), (j)
SHF GHz GHz GHz
9 cm - 3.3-3.5 3.3-3.5 (a), (b), (k), (l)
5 cm 5.650-5.850 5.650-5.925 5.650-5.850 (a), (b),
(m)
3 cm 10.00-10.50 10.00-10.50 10.00-10.50 (b), (c),
(i), (n)
1.2 cm 24.00-24.25 24.00-24.25 24.00-24.25 (a),
(b), (h), (o)
EHF GHz GHz GHz
6 mm 47.0-47.2 47.0-47.2 47.0-47.2
4 mm 75.5-81.0 75.5-81.0 75.5-81.0 (b), (c), (h)
2.5 mm 119.98-120.02 119.98-120.02 119.98-120.02 (k),
(p)
2 mm 142-149 142-149 142-149 (b), (c), (h), (k)
1 mm 241-250 241-250 241-250 (b), (c), (h), (q)
- above 300 above 300 above 300 (k)

(b) For a station having a control operator who has been
granted an Amateur Extra Class operator license or who holds
a CEPT radio-amateur license Class 1 license or Class 1
IARP:
Wavelength ITU ITU ITU Sharing
band Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 requirements


See 97.303,
Paragraph:
MF kHz kHz kHz
160 m 1810-1850 1800-2000 1800-2000 (a), (b), (c)
HF MHz MHz MHz
80 m 3.50-3.75 3.50-3.75 3.50-3.75 (a)
75 m 3.75-3.80 3.75-4.00 3.75-3.90 (a)
40 m 7.0-7.1 7.0-7.3 7.0-7.1 (a)
30 m 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 (d)
20 m 14.00-14.35 14.00-14.35 14.00-14.35
17 m 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168
15 m 21.00-21.45 21.00-21.45 21.00-21.45
12 m 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99
10 m 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7

(c) For a station having a control operator who has been
granted an operator license of Advanced Class:
Wavelength ITU ITU ITU Sharing
band Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 requirements


See 97.303,
Paragraph:
MF kHz kHz kHz
160 m 1810-1850 1800-2000 1800-2000 (a), (b), (c)
HF MHz MHz MHz
80 m 3.525-3.750 3.525-3.750 3.525-3.750 (a)
75 m 3.775-3.800 3.775-4.000 3.775-3.900 (a)
40 m 7.025-7.100 7.025-7.300 7.025-7.100 (a)
30 m 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 (d)
20 m 14.025-14.150 14.025-14.150 14.025-14.150
-do- 14.175-14.350 14.175-14.350 14.175-14.350
17 m 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168
15 m 21.025-21.200 21.025-21.200 21.025-21.200
-do- 21.225-21.450 21.225-21.450 21.225-21.450
12 m 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99
10 m 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7

(d) For a station having a control operator who has been
granted an operator license of General Class:
Wavelength ITU ITU ITU Sharing
band Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 requirements


See 97.303,
Paragraph:
MF kHz kHz kHz
160 m 1810-1850 1800-2000 1800-2000 (a), (b), (c)
HF MHz MHz MHz
80 m 3.525-3.750 3.525-3.750 3.525-3.750 (a)
75 m - 3.85-4.00 3.85-3.90 (a)
40 m 7.025-7.100 7.025-7.150 7.025-7.100 (a)
-do- - 7.225-7.300 - (a)
30 m 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 (d)
20 m 14.025-14.150 14.025-14.150 14.025-14.150
-do- 14.225-14.350 14.225-14.350 14.225-14.350
17 m 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168
15 m 21.025-21.200 21.025-21.200 21.025-21.200
-do- 21.30-21.45 21.30-21.45 21.30-21.45
12 m 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99
10 m 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7

(e) For a station having a control operator who has been
granted an operator license of Novice Class or Technician
Class and who has received credit for proficiency in
telegraphy in accordance with the international
requirements.
Wavelength ITU ITU ITU Sharing
band Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 requirements


See 97.303,
Paragraph:
HF MHz MHz MHz
80 m 3.675-3.725 3.675-3.725 3.675-3.725 (a)
40 m 7.050-7.075 7.10-7.15 7.050-7.075 (a)
15 m 21.10-21.20 21.10-21.20 21.10-21.20
10 m 28.10-28.50 28.10-28.50 28.10-28.50

VHF MHz MHz MHz
1.25 m - 222-225 - (a)

UHF MHz MHz MHz
23 cm 1270-1295 1270-1295 1270-1295 (h) (i)
97.303 Frequency sharing requirements.


The following is a summary of the frequency sharing
requirements that apply to amateur station transmissions on
the frequency bands specified in 97.301 of this Part. (For
each ITU Region, each frequency band allocated to the
amateur service is designated as either a secondary service
or a primary service. A station in a secondary service must
not cause harmful interference to, and must accept
interference from, stations in a primary service. See
2.105 and 2.106 of the FCC Rules, United States Table of
Frequency Allocations for complete requirements.)
(a) Where, in adjacent ITU Regions or Subregions, a band of
frequencies is allocated to different services of the same
category, the basic principle is the equality of right to
operate. The stations of each service in one region must
operate so as not to cause harmful interference to services
in the other Regions or Subregions. (See ITU Radio
Regulations, No. 346 (Geneva, 1979).)
(b) No amateur station transmitting in the 1900-2000 kHz
segment, the 70 cm band, the 33 cm band, the 13 cm band, the
9 cm band, the 5 cm band, the 3 cm band, the 24.05-24.25 GHz
segment, the 76-81 GHz segment, the 144-149 GHz segment and
the 241-248 GHz segment shall cause harmful interference to,
nor is protected from interference due to the operation of,
the Government radiolocation service.
(c) No amateur station transmitting in the 1900-2000 kHz
segment, the 3 cm band, the 76-81 GHz segment, the 144-149
GHz segment and the 241-248 GHz segment shall cause harmful
interference to, nor is protected from interference due to
the operation of, stations in the non-Government
radiolocation service.
(d) No amateur station transmitting in the 30 meter band
shall cause harmful interference to stations authorized by
other nations in the fixed service. The licensee of the
amateur station must make all necessary adjustments,
including termination of transmissions, if harmful
interference is caused.
(e) In the 1.25 m band:
(1) Use of the 219-220 MHz segment is limited to amateur
stations participating, as forwarding stations, in point-to-
point fixed digital message forwarding systems, including
intercity packet backbone networks. It is not available for
other purposes.
(2) No amateur station transmitting in the 219-220 MHz
segment shall cause harmful interference to, nor is
protected from interference due to operation of Automated
Maritime Telecommunications Systems (AMTS), television
broadcasting on channels 11 and 13, Interactive Video and
Data Service systems, Land Mobile Services systems, or any
other service having a primary allocation in or adjacent to
the band.
(3) No amateur station may transmit in the 219-220 MHz
segment unless the licensee has given written notification
of the station's specific geographic location for such
transmissions in order to be incorporated into a data base
that has been made available to the public. The notification
must be given at least 30 days prior to making such
transmissions. The notification must be given to:

The American Radio Relay League
225 Main Street
Newington, CT 06111-1494

(4) No amateur station may transmit in the 219-220 MHz
segment from a location that is within 640 km of an AMTS
Coast Station that uses frequencies in the 217-218/219-220
MHz AMTS bands unless the amateur station licensee has given
written notification of the station's specific geographic
location for such transmissions to the AMTS licensee. The
notification must be given at least 30 days prior to making
such transmissions. The location of AMTS Coast Stations
using the 217-218/219-220 MHz channels may be obtained from
either:

The American Radio Relay League
225 Main Street
Newington, CT 06111-1494

or

Interactive Systems, Inc.
Suite 1103
1601 North Kent Street
Arlington, VA 22209
Fax: (703) 812-8275
Phone: (703) 812-8270

(5) No amateur station may transmit in the 219-220 MHz
segment from a location that is within 80 km of an AMTS
Coast Station that uses frequencies in the 217-218/219-220
MHz AMTS bands unless that amateur station licensee holds
written approval from that AMTS licensee. The location of
AMTS Coast Stations using the 217-218/219-220 MHz channels
may be obtained as noted in paragraph (e)(4) of this
section.
(f) In the 70 cm band:
(1) No amateur station shall transmit from north of Line A
in the 420-430 MHz segment.
(2) The 420-430 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur
service in the United States on a secondary basis, and is
allocated in the fixed and mobile (except aeronautical
mobile) services in the International Table of allocations
on a primary basis. No amateur station transmitting in this
band shall cause harmful interference to, nor is protected
from interference due to the operation of, stations
authorized by other nations in the fixed and mobile (except
aeronautical mobile) services.
(3) The 430-440 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur
service on a secondary basis in ITU Regions 2 and 3. No
amateur station transmitting in this band in ITU Regions 2
and 3 shall cause harmful interference to, nor is protected
from interference due to the operation of, stations
authorized by other nations in the radiolocation service. In
ITU Region 1, the 430-440 MHz segment is allocated to the
amateur service on a co-primary basis with the radiolocation
service. As between these two services in this band in ITU
Region 1, the basic principle that applies is the equality
of right to operate. Amateur stations authorized by the
United States and radiolocation stations authorized by other
nations in ITU Region 1 shall operate so as not to cause
harmful interference to each other.
(4) No amateur station transmitting in the 449.75-450.25 MHz
segment shall cause interference to, nor is protected from
interference due to the operation of stations in, the space
operation service and the space research service or
Government or non-Government stations for space telecommand.
(g) In the 33 cm band:
(1) No amateur station shall transmit from within the States
of Colorado and Wyoming, bounded on the south by latitude
39 N, on the north by latitude 42 N, on the east by
longitude 105 W, and on the west by longitude 108 W.1 This
band is allocated on a secondary basis to the amateur
service subject to not causing harmful interference to, and
not receiving protection from any interference due to the
operation of, industrial, scientific and medical devices,
automatic vehicle monitoring systems or Government stations
authorized in this band.
(2) No amateur station shall transmit from those portions of
the States of Texas and New Mexico bounded on the south by
latitude 31 41' N, on the north by latitude 34 30' N, on
the east by longitude 104 11' W, and on the west by
longitude 107 30' W.
(h) No amateur station transmitting in the 23 cm band, the 3
cm band, the 24.05-24.25 GHz segment, the 76-81 GHz segment,
the 144-149 GHz segment and the 241-248 GHz segment shall
cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from
interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by
other nations in the radiolocation service.
(i) In the 1240-1260 MHz segment, no amateur station shall
cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from
interference due to the operation of, stations in the
radionavigation-satellite service, the aeronautical radio-
navigation service, or the radiolocation service.
(j) In the 13 cm band:
(1) The amateur service is allocated on a secondary basis in
all ITU Regions. In ITU Region 1, no amateur station shall
cause harmful interference to, and is not protected from
interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by
other nations in the fixed and mobile services. In ITU
Regions 2 and 3, no amateur station shall cause harmful
interference to, and shall not be protected from
interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by
other nations in the fixed, mobile and radiolocation
services.
(2) In the United States:
(i) The 2300-2305 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur
service on a secondary basis. (Currently the 2300-2305 MHz
segment is not allocated to any service on a primary
basis.);
(ii) The 2305-2310 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur
service on a secondary basis to the fixed, mobile, and
radiolocation services;
(iii) The 2390-2400 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur
service on a primary basis;
(iv) The 2400-2402 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur
service on a secondary basis. (Currently the 2400-2402 MHz
segment is not allocated to any service on a primary basis.)
The 2402-2417 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur
service on a primary basis. The 2417-2450 MHz segment is
allocated to the amateur service on a co-secondary basis
with the Government radiolocation service. Amateur stations
operating within the 2400-2450 MHz segment must accept
harmful interference that may be caused by the proper
operation of industrial, scientific, and medical devices
operating within the band.
(k) No amateur station transmitting in the 3.332-3.339 GHz
and 3.3458-3525 GHz segments, the 2.5 mm band, the 144.68-
144.98 GHz, 145.45-145.75 GHz and 146.82-147.12 GHz segments
and the 343-348 GHz segment shall cause harmful interference
to stations in the radio astronomy service. No amateur
station transmitting in the 300-302 GHz, 324-326 GHz, 345-
347 GHz, 363-365 GHz and 379-381 GHz segments shall cause
harmful interference to stations in the space research
service (passive) or Earth exploration-satellite service
(passive).
(l) In the 9 cm band:
(1) In ITU Regions 2 and 3, the band is allocated to the
amateur service on a secondary basis.
(2) In the United States, the band is allocated to the
amateur service on a co-secondary basis with the non-
Government radiolocation service.
(3) In the 3.3-3.4 GHz segment, no amateur station shall
cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from
interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by
other nations in the fixed and fixed-satellite service.
(4) In the 3.4-3.5 GHz segment, no amateur station shall
cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from
interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by
other nations in the fixed and fixed-satellite service.
(m) In the 5 cm band:
(1) In the 5.650-5.725 GHz segment, the amateur service is
allocated in all ITU Regions on a co-secondary basis with
the space research (deep space) service.
(2) In the 5.725-5.850 GHz segment, the amateur service is
allocated in all ITU Regions on a secondary basis. No
amateur station shall cause harmful interference to, nor is
protected from interference due to the operation of,
stations authorized by other nations in the fixed-satellite
service in ITU Region 1.
(3) No amateur station transmitting in the 5.725-5.875 GHz
segment is protected from interference due to the operation
of industrial, scientific and medical devices operating on
5.8 GHz.
(4) In the 5.650-5.850 GHz segment, no amateur station shall
cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from
interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by
other nations in the radiolocation service.
(5) In the 5.850-5.925 GHz segment, the amateur service is
allocated in ITU Region 2 on a co-secondary basis with the
radiolocation service. In the United States, the segment is
allocated to the amateur service on a secondary basis to the
non-Government fixed-satellite service. No amateur station
shall cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from
interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by
other nations in the fixed, fixed-satellite and mobile
services. No amateur station shall cause harmful
interference to, nor is protected from interference due to
the operation of, stations in the non-Government fixed-
satellite service.
(n) In the 3 cm band:
(1) In the United States, the 3 cm band is allocated to the
amateur service on a co-secondary basis with the non-
government radiolocation service.
(2) In the 10.00-10.45 GHz segment in ITU Regions 1 and 3,
no amateur station shall cause interference to, nor is
protected from interference due to the operation of,
stations authorized by other nations in the fixed and mobile
services.
(o) No amateur station transmitting in the 1.2 cm band is
protected from interference due to the operation of
industrial, scientific and medical devices on 24.125 GHz. In
the United States, the 24.05-24.25 GHz segment is allocated
to the amateur service on a co-secondary basis with the non-
government radiolocation and Government and non-government
Earth exploration-satellite (active) services.
(p) The 2.5 mm band is allocated to the amateur service on a
secondary basis. No amateur station transmitting in this
band shall cause harmful interference to, nor is protected
from interference due to the operation of, stations in the
fixed, inter-satellite and mobile services.
(q) No amateur station transmitting in the 244-246 GHz
segment of the 1 mm band is protected from interference due
to the operation of industrial, scientific and medical
devices on 245 GHz.


97.305 Authorized emission types.
(a) An amateur station may transmit a CW emission on any
frequency authorized to the control operator.
(b) A station may transmit a test emission on any frequency
authorized to the control operator for brief periods for
experimental purposes, except that no pulse modulation
emission may be transmitted on any frequency where pulse is
not specifically authorized and no SS modulation emission
may be transmitted on any frequency where SS is not
specifically authorized.
(c) A station may transmit the following emission types on
the frequencies indicated, as authorized to the control
operator, subject to the standards specified in 97.307(f)
of this part.
Wavelength Frequencies Emission Types Standards
band Authorized See 97.307(f),
paragraph:
MF:
160 m Entire band RTTY, data (3)
-do- -do- Phone, image (1), (2)
HF:
80 m Entire band RTTY, data (3), (9)
75 m Entire band Phone, image (1), (2)
40 m 7.000-7.100 MHz RTTY, data (3), (9)
-do- 7.075-7.100 MHz Phone, image (1), (2), (9), (11)
-do- 7.100-7.150 MHz RTTY, data (3), (9)
-do- 7.150-7.300 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
30 m Entire band RTTY, data (3)
20 m 14.00-14.15 MHz RTTY, data (3)
-do- 14.15-14.35 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
17 m 18.068-18.110 MHz RTTY, data (3)
-do- 18.110-18.168 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
15 m 21.0-21.2 MHz RTTY, data (3), (9)
-do- 21.20-21.45 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
12 m 24.89-24.93 MHz RTTY, data (3)
-do- 24.93-24.99 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
10 m 28.0-28.3 MHz RTTY, data (4)
-do- 28.3-28.5 MHz Phone, image (1), (2), (10)
-do- 28.5-29.0 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
-do- 29.0-29.7MHz Phone, image (2)
VHF:
6 m 50.1-51.0 MHz RTTY, data (5)
-do- -do- MCW, phone, image (2)
-do- 51.0-54.0 MHz RTTY, data, test (5), (8)
-do- -do- MCW, phone, image (2)
2 m 144.1-148.0 MHz RTTY, data, test (5), (8)
-do- -do- MCW, phone, image (2)
1.25 m 219-220 MHz Data (13)
-do- 222-225 MHz MCW, phone, image
RTTY, data, test (2), (6), (8)
UHF:
70 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS, test (6), (8)
33 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS, test,
pulse (7), (8), (12)
23 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS, test (7), (8), (12)
13 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
SHF:
9 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
5 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
3 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS, test (7), (8), (12)
1.2 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
EHF:
6 mm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
4 mm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
2.5 mm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
2 mm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
1 mm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
- Above 300 GHz MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)


97.307 Emission standards.
(a) No amateur station transmission shall occupy more
bandwidth than necessary for the information rate and
emission type being transmitted, in accordance with good
amateur practice.
(b) Emissions resulting from modulation must be confined to
the band or segment available to the control operator.
Emissions outside the necessary bandwidth must not cause
splatter or keyclick interference to operations on adjacent
frequencies.
(c) All spurious emissions from a station transmitter must
be reduced to the greatest extent practicable. If any
spurious emission, including chassis or power line
radiation, causes harmful interference to the reception of
another radio station, the licensee of the interfering
amateur station is required to take steps to eliminate the
interference, in accordance with good engineering practice.
(d) The mean power of any spurious emission from a station
transmitter or external RF power amplifier transmitting on a
frequency below 30 MHz must not exceed 50 mW and must be at
least 40 dB below the mean power of the fundamental
emission. For a transmitter of mean power less than 5 W, the
attenuation must be at least 30 dB. A transmitter built
before April 15, 1977, or first marketed before January 1,
1978, is exempt from this requirement.
(e) The mean power of any spurious emission from a station
transmitter or external RF power amplifier transmitting on a
frequency between 30-225 MHz must be at least 60 dB below
the mean power of the fundamental. For a transmitter having
a mean power of 25 W or less, the mean power of any spurious
emission supplied to the antenna transmission line must not
exceed 25 W and must be at least 40 dB below the mean power
of the fundamental emission, but need not be reduced below
the power of 10 W. A transmitter built before April 15,
1977, or first marketed before January 1, 1978, is exempt
from this requirement.
(f) The following standards and limitations apply to
transmissions on the frequencies specified in 97.305(c) of
this Part.
(1) No angle-modulated emission may have a modulation index
greater than 1 at the highest modulation frequency.
(2) No non-phone emission shall exceed the bandwidth of a
communications quality phone emission of the same modulation
type. The total bandwidth of an independent sideband
emission (having B as the first symbol), or a multiplexed
image and phone emission, shall not exceed that of a
communications quality A3E emission.
(3) Only a RTTY or data emission using a specified digital
code listed in 97.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted.
The symbol rate must not exceed 300 bauds, or for frequency-
shift keying, the frequency shift between mark and space
must not exceed 1 kHz.
(4) Only a RTTY or data emission using a specified digital
code listed in 97.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted.
The symbol rate must not exceed 1200 bauds. For frequency-
shift keying, the frequency shift between mark and space
must not exceed 1 kHz.
(5) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified
digital code listed in 97.309(a) of this Part may be
transmitted. The symbol rate must not exceed 19.6 kilobauds.
A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using an unspecified
digital code under the limitations listed in 97.309(b) of
this Part also may be transmitted. The authorized bandwidth
is 20 kHz.
(6) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified
digital code listed in 97.309(a) of this Part may be
transmitted. The symbol rate must not exceed 56 kilobauds. A
RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using an unspecified
digital code under the limitations listed in 97.309(b) of
this Part also may be transmitted. The authorized bandwidth
is 100 kHz.
(7) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified
digital code listed in 97.309(a) of this Part or an
unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in
97.309(b) of this Part may be transmitted.
(8) A RTTY or data emission having designators with A, B, C,
D, E, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1, 2, 7 or 9 as
the second symbol; and D or W as the third symbol is also
authorized.
(9) A station having a control operator holding a Novice or
Technician Class operator license may only transmit a CW
emission using the international Morse code.
(10) A station having a control operator holding a Novice
Class operator license or a Technician Class operator
license and who has received credit for proficiency in
telegraphy in accordance with the international requirements
may only transmit a CW emission using the international
Morse code or phone emissions J3E and R3E.
(11) Phone and image emissions may be transmitted only by
stations located in ITU Regions 1 and 3, and by stations
located within ITU Region 2 that are west of 130 West
longitude or south of 20 North latitude.
(12) Emission F8E may be transmitted.
(13) A data emission using an unspecified digital code under
the limitations listed in 97.309(b) of this Part also may
be transmitted. The authorized bandwidth is 100 kHz.


97.309 RTTY and data emission codes.
(a) Where authorized by 97.305(c) and 97.307(f) of this
Part, an amateur station may transmit a RTTY or data
emission using the following specified digital codes:
(1) The 5-unit, start-stop, International Telegraph Alphabet
No. 2, code defined in International Telegraph and Telephone
Consultative Committee Recommendation F.1, Division C
(commonly known as Baudot).
(2) The 7-unit code, specified in International Radio
Consultative Committee Recommendation CCIR 476-2 (1978),
476-3 (1982), 476-4 (1986) or 625 (1986) (commonly known as
AMTOR).
(3) The 7-unit code defined in American National Standards
Institute X3.4-1977 or International Alphabet No. 5 defined
in International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative
Committee Recommendation T.50 or in International
Organization for Standardization, International Standard ISO
646 (1983), and extensions as provided for in CCITT
Recommendation T.61 (Malaga-Torremolinos, 1984) (commonly
known as ASCII).
(4) An amateur station transmitting a RTTY or data emission
using a digital code specified in this paragraph may use any
technique whose technical characteristics have been
documented publicly, such as CLOVER, G-TOR, or PacTOR, for
the purpose of facilitating communications.
(b) Where authorized by 97.305(c) and 97.307(f) of this
Part, a station may transmit a RTTY or data emission using
an unspecified digital code, except to a station in a
country with which the United States does not have an
agreement permitting the code to be used. RTTY and data
emissions using unspecified digital codes must not be
transmitted for the purpose of obscuring the meaning of any
communication. When deemed necessary by an EIC to assure
compliance with the FCC Rules, a station must:
(1) Cease the transmission using the unspecified digital
code;
(2) Restrict transmissions of any digital code to the extent
instructed;
(3) Maintain a record, convertible to the original
information, of all digital communications transmitted.
97.311 SS emission types.
(a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur station are
authorized only for communications between points within
areas where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC and
between an area where the amateur service is regulated by
the FCC and an amateur station in another country that
permits such communications. SS emission transmissions must
not be used for the purpose of obscuring the meaning of any
communication.
(b) A station transmitting SS emissions must not cause
harmful interference to stations employing other authorized
emissions, and must accept all interference caused by
stations employing other authorized emissions.
(c) When deemed necessary by a District Director to assure
compliance with this Part, a station licensee must:
(1) Cease SS emission transmissions;
(2) Restrict SS emission transmissions to the extent
instructed; and
(3) Maintain a record, convertible to the original
information (voice, text, image, etc.) of all spread
spectrum communications transmitted.
(d) The transmitter power must not exceed 100 W under any
circumstances. If more than 1 W is used, automatic
transmitter control shall limit output power to that which
is required for the communication. This shall be determined
by the use of the ratio, measured at the receiver, of the
received energy per user data bit (Eb) to the sum of the
received power spectral densities of noise (N0) and co-
channel interference (I0). Average transmitter power over 1
W shall be automatically adjusted to maintain an Eb/(N0 +
I0) ratio of no more than 23 dB at the intended receiver.


97.313 Transmitter power standards.
(a) An amateur station must use the minimum transmitter
power necessary to carry out the desired communications.
(b) No station may transmit with a transmitter power
exceeding 1.5 kW PEP.
(c) No station may transmit with a transmitter power
exceeding 200 W PEP on:
(1) The 3.675-3.725 MHz, 7.10-7.15 MHz, 10.10-10.15 MHz and
21.1-21.2 MHz segments;
(2) The 28.1-28.5 MHz segment when the control operator is a
Novice Class operator or a Technician Class operator who has
received credit for proficiency in telegraphy in accordance
with the international requirements; or
(3) The 7.050-7.075 MHz segment when the station is within
ITU Regions 1 or 3.
(d) No station may transmit with a transmitter power
exceeding 25 W PEP on the VHF 1.25 m band when the control
operator is a Novice operator.
(e) No station may transmit with a transmitter power
exceeding 5 W PEP on the UHF 23 cm band when the control
operator is a Novice operator.
(f) No station may transmit with a transmitter power
exceeding 50 W PEP on the UHF 70 cm band from an area
specified in footnote US7 to 2.106 of Part 2, unless
expressly authorized by the FCC after mutual agreement, on a
case-by-case basis, between the District Director of the
applicable field facility and the military area frequency
coordinator at the applicable military base. An Earth
station or telecommand station, however, may transmit on the
435-438 MHz segment with a maximum of 611 W effective
radiated power (1 kW equivalent isotropically radiated
power) without the authorization otherwise required. The
transmitting antenna elevation angle between the lower half-
power (-3 dB relative to the peak or antenna bore sight)
point and the horizon must always be greater than 10.
(g) No station may transmit with a transmitter power
exceeding 50 W PEP on the 33 cm band from within 241 km of
the boundaries of the White Sands Missile Range. Its
boundaries are those portions of Texas and New Mexico
bounded on the south by latitude 31 41' North, on the east
by longitude 104 11' West, on the north by latitude 34 30'
North, and on the west by longitude 107 30' West.
(h) No station may transmit with a transmitter power
exceeding 50 W PEP on the 219-220 MHz segment of the 1.25 m
band.


97.315 Certification of external RF power amplifiers.
(a) No more than 1 unit of 1 model of an external RF power
amplifier capable of operation below 144 MHz may be
constructed or modified during any calendar year by an
amateur operator for use at a station without a grant of
certification. No amplifier capable of operation below 144
MHz may be constructed or modified by a non-amateur operator
without a grant of certification from the FCC.
(b) Any external RF power amplifier or external RF power
amplifier kit (see 2.815 of the FCC Rules), manufactured,
imported or modified for use in a station or attached at any
station must be certificated for use in the amateur service
in accordance with Subpart J of Part 2 of the FCC Rules.
This requirement does not apply if one or more of the
following conditions are met:
(1) The amplifier is not capable of operation on frequencies
below 144 MHz. For the purpose of this part, an amplifier
will be deemed to be incapable of operation below 144 MHz if
it is not capable of being easily modified to increase its
amplification characteristics below 120 MHz and either:
(i) The mean output power of the amplifier decreases, as
frequency decreases from 144 MHz, to a point where 0 dB or
less gain is exhibited at 120 MHz; or
(ii) The amplifier is not capable of amplifying signals
below 120 MHz even for brief periods without sustaining
permanent damage to its amplification circuitry.
(2) The amplifier was manufactured before April 28, 1978,
and has been issued a marketing waiver by the FCC, or the
amplifier was purchased before April 28, 1978, by an amateur
operator for use at that amateur operator's station.
(3) The amplifier was:
(i) Constructed by the licensee, not from an external RF
power amplifier kit, for use at the licensee's station; or
(ii) Modified by the licensee for use at the licensee's
station.
(4) The amplifier is sold by an amateur operator to another
amateur operator or to a dealer.
(5) The amplifier is purchased in used condition by an
equipment dealer from an amateur operator and the amplifier
is further sold to another amateur operator for use at that
operator's station.
(c) Any external RF power amplifier appearing in the
Commission's database as certificated for use in the amateur
service may be marketed for use in the amateur service.


97.317 Standards for certification of external RF power
amplifiers.
(a) To receive a grant of certification, the amplifier must
satisfy the spurious emission standards of 97.307(d) or (e)
of this Part, as applicable, when the amplifier is:
(1) Operated at its full output power;
(2) Placed in the "standby" or "off" positions, but still
connected to the transmitter; and
(3) Driven with at least 50 W mean RF input power (unless
higher drive level is specified).
(b) To receive a grant of certification, the amplifier must
not be capable of operation on any frequency or frequencies
between
24 MHz and 35 MHz. The amplifier will be deemed incapable
of such operation if it:
(1) Exhibits no more than 6 dB gain between 24 MHz and 26
MHz and between 28 MHz and 35 MHz. (This gain will be
determined by the ratio of the input RF driving signal (mean
power measurement) to the mean RF output power of the
amplifier); and
(2) Exhibits no amplification (0 dB gain) between 26 MHz and
28 MHz.
(c) Certification may be denied when denial would prevent
the use of these amplifiers in services other than the
amateur service. The following features will result in
dismissal or denial of an application for certification:
(1) Any accessible wiring which, when altered, would permit
operation of the amplifier in a manner contrary to the FCC
Rules;
(2) Circuit boards or similar circuitry to facilitate the
addition of components to change the amplifier's operating
characteristics in a manner contrary to the FCC Rules;
(3) Instructions for operation or modification of the
amplifier in a manner contrary to the FCC Rules;
(4) Any internal or external controls or adjustments to
facilitate operation of the amplifier in a manner contrary
to the FCC Rules;
(5) Any internal RF sensing circuitry or any external
switch, the purpose of which is to place the amplifier in
the transmit mode;
(6) The incorporation of more gain in the amplifier than is
necessary to operate in the amateur service; for purposes of
this paragraph, the amplifier must:
(i) Not be capable of achieving designed output power when
driven with less than 40 W mean RF input power;
(ii) Not be capable of amplifying the input RF driving
signal by more than 15 dB, unless the amplifier has a
designed transmitter power of less than 1.5 kW (in such a
case, gain must be reduced by the same number of dB as the
transmitter power relationship to 1.5 kW; This gain
limitation is determined by the ratio of the input RF
driving signal to the RF output power of the amplifier where
both signals are expressed in peak envelope power or mean
power);
(iii) Not exhibit more gain than permitted by paragraph
(c)(6)(ii) of this Section when driven by an RF input signal
of less than 50 W mean power; and
(iv) Be capable of sustained operation at its designed power
level.
(7) Any attenuation in the input of the amplifier which,
when removed or modified, would permit the amplifier to
function at its designed transmitter power when driven by an
RF frequency input signal of less than 50 W mean power; or
(8) Any other features designed to facilitate operation in a
telecommunication service other than the Amateur Radio
Services, such as the Citizens Band (CB) Radio Service.



SUBPART E-PROVIDING EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS

97.401 Operation during a disaster.
(a) When normal communication systems are overloaded,
damaged or disrupted because a disaster has occurred, or is
likely to occur, in an area where the amateur service is
regulated by the FCC, an amateur station may make
transmissions necessary to meet essential communication
needs and facilitate relief actions.
(b) When normal communication systems are overloaded,
damaged or disrupted because a natural disaster has
occurred, or is likely to occur, in an area where the
amateur service is not regulated by the FCC, a station
assisting in meeting essential communication needs and
facilitating relief actions may do so only in accord with
ITU Resolution No. 640 (Geneva, 1979). The 80 m, 75 m, 40 m,
30 m, 20 m, 17 m, 15 m, 12 m, and 2 m bands may be used for
these purposes.
(c) When a disaster disrupts normal communication systems in
a particular area, the FCC may declare a temporary state of
communication emergency. The declaration will set forth any
special conditions and special rules to be observed by
stations during the communication emergency. A request for a
declaration of a temporary state of emergency should be
directed to the EIC in the area concerned.
(d) A station in, or within 92.6 km of, Alaska may transmit
emissions J3E and R3E on the channel at 5.1675 MHz for
emergency communications. The channel must be shared with
stations licensed in the Alaska-private fixed service. The
transmitter power must not exceed 150 W.


97.403 Safety of life and protection of property.
No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur
station of any means of radiocommunication at its disposal
to provide essential communication needs in connection with
the immediate safety of human life and immediate protection
of property when normal communication systems are not
available.


97.405 Station in distress.
(a) No provision of these rules prevents the use by an
amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to
attract attention, make known its condition and location,
and obtain assistance.
(b) No provision of these rules prevents the use by a
station, in the exceptional circumstances described in
paragraph (a), of any means of radiocommunications at its
disposal to assist a station in distress.


97.407 Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES).
(a) No station may transmit in RACES unless it is an FCC-
licensed primary, club, or military recreation station and
it is certified by a civil defense organization as
registered with that organization, or it is an FCC-licensed
RACES station. No person may be the control operator of a
RACES station, or may be the control operator of an amateur
station transmitting in RACES unless that person holds a
FCC-issued amateur operator license and is certified by a
civil defense organization as enrolled in that organization.
(b) The frequency bands and segments and emissions
authorized to the control operator are available to stations
transmitting communications in RACES on a shared basis with
the amateur service. In the event of an emergency which
necessitates the invoking of the President's War Emergency
Powers under the provisions of Section 706 of the
Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. 606,
RACES stations and amateur stations participating in RACES
may only transmit on the following frequency segments:
(1) The 1800-1825 kHz, 1975-2000 kHz, 3.50-3.55 MHz, 3.93-
3.98 MHz, 3.984-4.000 MHz, 7.079-7.125 MHz, 7.245-7.255 MHz,
10.10-10.15 MHz, 14.047-14.053 MHz, 14.22-14.23 MHz, 14.331-
14.350 MHz, 21.047-21.053 MHz, 21.228-21.267 MHz, 28.55-
28.75 MHz, 29.237-29.273 MHz, 29.45-29.65 MHz, 50.35-50.75
MHz, 52-54 MHz, 144.50-145.71 MHz, 146-148 MHz, 2390-2450
MHz segments;
(2) The 1.25 m, 70 cm and 23 cm bands; and
(3) The channels at 3.997 MHz and 53.30 MHz may be used in
emergency areas when required to make initial contact with a
military unit and for communications with military stations
on matters requiring coordination.
(c) A RACES station may only communicate with:
(1) Another RACES station;
(2) An amateur station registered with a civil defense
organization;
(3) A United States Government station authorized by the
responsible agency to communicate with RACES stations;
(4) A station in a service regulated by the FCC whenever
such communication is authorized by the FCC.
(d) An amateur station registered with a civil defense
organization may only communicate with:
(1) A RACES station licensed to the civil defense
organization with which the amateur station is registered;
(2) The following stations upon authorization of the
responsible civil defense official for the organization with
which the amateur station is registered:
(i) A RACES station licensed to another civil defense
organization;
(ii) An amateur station registered with the same or another
civil defense organization;
(iii) A United States Government station authorized by the
responsible agency to communicate with RACES stations; and
(iv) A station in a service regulated by the FCC whenever
such communication is authorized by the FCC.
(e) All communications transmitted in RACES must be
specifically authorized by the civil defense organization
for the area served. Only civil defense communications of
the following types may be transmitted:
(1) Messages concerning impending or actual conditions
jeopardizing the public safety, or affecting the national
defense or security during periods of local, regional, or
national civil emergencies;
(2) Messages directly concerning the immediate safety of
life of individuals, the immediate protection of property,
maintenance of law and order, alleviation of human suffering
and need, and the combating of armed attack or sabotage;
(3) Messages directly concerning the accumulation and
dissemination of public information or instructions to the
civilian population essential to the activities of the civil
defense organization or other authorized governmental or
relief agencies; and
(4) Communications for RACES training drills and tests
necessary to ensure the establishment and maintenance of
orderly and efficient operation of the RACES as ordered by
the responsible civil defense organizations served. Such
drills and tests may not exceed a total time of 1 hour per
week. With the approval of the chief officer for emergency
planning in the applicable State, Commonwealth, District or
territory, however, such tests and drills may be conducted
for a period not to exceed 72 hours no more than twice in
any calendar year.

SUBPART F-QUALIFYING EXAMINATION SYSTEMS


97.501 Qualifying for an amateur operator license.
Each applicant must pass an examination for a new amateur
operator license grant and for each change in operator
class. Each applicant for the class of operator license
grant specified below must pass, or otherwise receive
examination credit for, the following examination elements:
(a) Amateur Extra Class operator: Elements 1, 2, 3, and 4;
(b) General Class operator: Elements 1, 2, and 3;
(c) Technician Class operator: Element 2.


97.503 Element standards.
(a) A telegraphy examination must be sufficient to prove
that the examinee has the ability to send correctly by hand
and to receive correctly by ear texts in the international
Morse code at not less than the prescribed speed, using all
the letters of the alphabet, numerals 0-9, period, comma,
question mark, slant mark and prosigns AR, BT and SK.
Element 1: 5 words per minute.
(b) A written examination must be such as to prove that the
examinee possesses the operational and technical
qualifications required to perform properly the duties of an
amateur service licensee. Each written examination must be
comprised of a question set as follows:
(1) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a
Technician Class operator license. The minimum passing score
is 26 questions answered correctly.
(2) Element 3: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a
General Class operator license. The minimum passing score is
26 questions answered correctly.
(3) Element 4: 50 questions concerning the privileges of an
Amateur Extra Class operator license. The minimum passing
score is 37 questions answered correctly.


97.505 Element credit.
(a) The administering VEs must give credit as specified
below to an examinee holding any of the following license
grants or license documents:
(1) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for
renewal) FCC-granted Advanced Class operator license grant:
Elements 1, 2, and 3.
(2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for
renewal) FCC-granted General Class operator license grant:
Elements 1, 2, and 3.
(3) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for
renewal) FCC-granted Technician Plus Class operator
(including a Technician Class operator license granted
before February 14, 1991) license grant: Elements 1 and 2.
(4) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for
renewal) FCC-granted Technician Class operator license
grant: Element 2.
(5) An unexpired (or expired) FCC-granted Novice Class
operator license grant: Element 1.
(6) A CSCE: Each element the CSCE indicates the examinee
passed within the previous 365 days.
(7) An unexpired (or expired less than 5 years) FCC-issued
commercial radiotelegraph operator license or permit:
Element 1.
(8) An expired FCC-issued Technician Class operator license
document granted before March 21, 1987: Element 3.
(9) An expired or unexpired FCC-issued Technician Class
operator license document granted before February 14, 1991:
Element 1.
(b) No examination credit, except as herein provided, shall
be allowed on the basis of holding or having held any other
license grant or document.


97.507 Preparing an examination.
(a) Each telegraphy message and each written question set
administered to an examinee must be prepared by a VE holding
an Amateur Extra Class operator license. A telegraphy
message or written question set may also be prepared for the
following elements by a VE holding an operator license of
the class indicated:
(1) Element 3: Advanced Class operator.
(2) Elements 1 and 2: Advanced, General, or Technician
(including Technician Plus) Class operators.
(b) Each question set administered to an examinee must
utilize questions taken from the applicable question pool.
(c) Each telegraphy message and each written question set
administered to an examinee for an amateur operator license
must be prepared, or obtained from a supplier, by the
administering VEs according to instructions from the
coordinating VEC.
(d) A telegraphy examination must consist of a message sent
in the international Morse code at no less than the
prescribed speed for a minimum of 5 minutes. The message
must contain each required telegraphy character at least
once. No message known to the examinee may be administered
in a telegraphy examination. Each 5 letters of the alphabet
must be counted as 1 word. Each numeral, punctuation mark
and prosign must be counted as 2 letters of the alphabet.


97.509 Administering VE requirements.
(a) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be
administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an examination
session coordinated by a VEC. Before the session, the
administering VEs or the VE session manager must ensure that
a public announcement is made giving the location and time
of the session. The number of examinees at the session may
be limited.
(b) Each administering VE must:
(1) Be accredited by the coordinating VEC;
(2) Be at least 18 years of age;
(3) Be a person who holds an amateur operator license of the
class specified below:
(i) Amateur Extra, Advanced or General Class in order to
administer a Technician Class operator license examination;
(ii) Amateur Extra or Advanced Class in order to administer
a General Class operator license examination;
(iii) Amateur Extra Class in order to administer an Amateur
Extra Class operator license examination.
(4) Not be a person whose grant of an amateur station
license or amateur operator license has ever been revoked or
suspended.
(c) Each administering VE must be present and observing the
examinee throughout the entire examination. The
administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and
necessary supervision of each examination. The administering
VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure
of the examinee to comply with their instructions.
(d) No VE may administer an examination to his or her
spouse, children, grandchildren, stepchildren, parents,
grandparents, stepparents, brothers, sisters, stepbrothers,
stepsisters, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, and in-laws.
(e) No VE may administer or certify any examination by
fraudulent means or for monetary or other consideration
including reimbursement in any amount in excess of that
permitted. Violation of this provision may result in the
revocation of the grant of the VE's amateur station license
and the suspension of the grant of the VE's amateur operator
license.
(f) No examination that has been compromised shall be
administered to any examinee. Neither the same telegraphy
message nor the same question set may be re-administered to
the same examinee.
(g) Passing a telegraphy receiving examination is adequate
proof of an examinee's ability to both send and receive
telegraphy. The administering VEs, however, may also include
a sending segment in a telegraphy examination.
(h) Upon completion of each examination element, the
administering VEs must immediately grade the examinee's
answers. The administering VEs are responsible for
determining the correctness of the examinee's answers.
(i) When the examinee is credited for all examination
elements required for the operator license sought, 3 VEs
must certify that the examinee is qualified for the license
grant and that the VEs have complied with these
administering VE requirements. The certifying VEs are
jointly and individually accountable for the proper
administration of each examination element reported. The
certifying VEs may delegate to other qualified VEs their
authority, but not their accountability, to administer
individual elements of an examination.
(j) When the examinee does not score a passing grade on an
examination element, the administering VEs must return the
application document to the examinee and inform the examinee
of the grade.
(k) The administering VEs must accommodate an examinee whose
physical disabilities require a special examination
procedure. The administering VEs may require a physician's
certification indicating the nature of the disability before
determining which, if any, special procedures must be used.
(l) The administering VEs must issue a CSCE to an examinee
who scores a passing grade on an examination element.
(m) Within 10 days of the administration of a successful
examination for an amateur operator license, the
administering VEs must submit the application document to
the coordinating VEC.


97.511 Examinee conduct.
Each examinee must comply with the instructions given by the
administering VEs.


97.513 VE session manager requirements.
(a) A VE session manager may be selected by the VE team for
each examination session. The VE session manager must be
accredited as a VE by the same VEC that coordinates the
examination session. The VE session manager may serve
concurrently as an administering VE.
(b) The VE session manager may carry on liaison between the
VE team and the coordinating VEC.
(c) The VE session manager may organize activities at an
examination session.


97.515 [Reserved]


97.517 [Reserved]


97.519 Coordinating examination sessions.
(a) A VEC must coordinate the efforts of VEs in preparing
and administering examinations.
(b) At the completion of each examination session, the
coordinating VEC must collect applicant information and
tests results from the administering VEs. Within 10 days of
collection, the coordinating VEC must:
(1) Screen collected information;
(2) Resolve all discrepancies and verify that the VE's
certifications are properly completed; and
(3) For qualified examinees, forward electronically all
required data to the FCC. All data forwarded must be
retained for at least 15 months and must be made available
to the FCC upon request.
(c) Each VEC must make any examination records available to
the FCC, upon request.
(d) The FCC may:
(1) Administer any examination element itself;
(2) Readminister any examination element previously
administered by VEs, either itself or under the supervision
of a VEC or VEs designated by the FCC; or
(3) Cancel the operator/primary station license of any
licensee who fails to appear for readministration of an
examination when directed by the FCC, or who does not
successfully complete any required element that is
readministered. In an instance of such cancellation, the
person will be granted an operator/primary station license
consistent with completed examination elements that have not
been invalidated by not appearing for, or by failing, the
examination upon readministration.


97.521 VEC qualifications.
No organization may serve as a VEC unless it has entered
into a written agreement with the FCC. The VEC must abide by
the terms of the agreement. In order to be eligible to be a
VEC, the entity must:
(a) Be an organization that exists for the purpose of
furthering the amateur service;
(b) Be capable of serving as a VEC in at least the VEC
region (see Appendix 2) proposed;
(c) Agree to coordinate examinations for any class of
amateur operator license;
(d) Agree to assure that, for any examination, every
examinee qualified under these rules is registered without
regard to race, sex, religion, national origin or membership
(or lack thereof) in any amateur service organization.


97.523 Question pools.
All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for
each written examination element. Each question pool must
contain at least 10 times the number of questions required
for a single examination. Each question pool must be
published and made available to the public prior to its use
for making a question set. Each question on each VEC
question pool must be prepared by a VE holding the required
FCC-issued operator license. See 97.507(a) of this Part.


97.525 Accrediting VEs.
(a) No VEC may accredit a person as a VE if:
(1) The person does not meet minimum VE statutory
qualifications or minimum qualifications as prescribed by
this Part;
(2) The FCC does not accept the voluntary and uncompensated
services of the person;
(3) The VEC determines that the person is not competent to
perform the VE functions; or
(4) The VEC determines that questions of the person's
integrity or honesty could compromise the examinations.
(b) Each VEC must seek a broad representation of amateur
operators to be VEs. No VEC may discriminate in accrediting
VEs on the basis of race, sex, religion or national origin;
nor on the basis of membership (or lack thereof) in an
amateur service organization; nor on the basis of the person
accepting or declining to accept reimbursement.


97.527 Reimbursement for expenses.
VEs and VECs may be reimbursed by examinees for out-of-
pocket expenses incurred in preparing, processing,
administering, or coordinating an examination for an amateur
operator license.

Appendix 1-Places Where the Amateur Service is Regulated by
the FCC
In ITU Region 2, the amateur service is regulated by the FCC
within the territorial limits of the 50 United States,
District of Columbia, Caribbean Insular areas [Commonwealth
of Puerto Rico, United States Virgin Islands (50 islets and
cays) and Navassa Island], and Johnston Island (Islets East,
Johnston, North and Sand) and Midway Island (Islets Eastern
and Sand) in the Pacific Insular areas.
In ITU Region 3, the amateur service is regulated by the FCC
within the Pacific Insular territorial limits of American
Samoa (seven islands), Baker Island, Commonwealth of
Northern Mariannas Islands, Guam Island, Howland Island,
Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef, Kure Island, Palmyra Island
(more than 50 islets) and Wake Island (Islets Peale, Wake
and Wilkes).
Appendix 2-VEC Regions
1. Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode
Island and Vermont.
2. New Jersey and New York.
3. Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland and
Pennsylvania.
4. Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina,
South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.
5. Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma
and Texas.
6. California.
7. Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington
and Wyoming.
8. Michigan, Ohio and West Virginia.
9. Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin.
10. Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
North Dakota and South Dakota.
11. Alaska.
12. Caribbean Insular areas.
13. Hawaii and Pacific Insular areas.
SUBPART B- STATION OPERATION STANDARDS[1In a waiver
effective July 2, 1990, the FCC permitted amateurs in the
restricted areas to transmit in the following segments:


902.0-902.4, 902.6-904.3, 904.7-925.3, 925.7-927.3, and


927.7-928.0 MHz.]Wavelength Frequencies Emission Types
Standards
band Authorized See 97.307(f),