Radiogiornale
Ottobre 2001 Periodico telematico indipendente




Nostro impegno Ú informare tempestivamente i Radioamatori sulle notizie che 
li riguardano, soprattutto in questo momento di grandi cambiamenti epocali.
Questo numero Ú Interamente dedicato alla nuova patente europea di radioamatore



Il nuovo certificato Harec
CAMBIANO GLI ESAMI
PER DIVENTARE RADIOAMATORE


Riceviano
da: Manuel F. Calero i4cmf

La Patente di Operatore Europea o Certificato HAREC


Caro PAOLO,

visto che si sta discutendo di nuova normativa per noi radioamatori e nello 
augurarmi che presto veda la luce, mi pare opportuno che sul tuo Radiogiornale 
venga data notizia di quella che sara' la patente di operatore europea definita 
in ambito CEPT come HAREC che significa Harmonized Amateur Radio Examination 
Certifcates, che tradotto vuol dire "Armonizzazione degli esami per i 
Certificati di Radio Amatore"

Ti mando in allegato a questo messaggio il file .DOC in formato .ZIP con il 
testo (sono 20 pagine) in lingua inglese della raccomandazione T/R 61-02 della 
CEPT inerente la parte amministrativa e tecnica per il conseguimento dei 
certificati HAREC.

Per agevolare coloro che masticano poco l'inglese, dato che si tratta di 20 
pagine di testo, ho fatto una sintesi delle notizie che ritengo interessanti per 
tutti gli OM presenti e futuri che potrai pubblicare sul tuo Radiogiornale.

La patente o certificato HAREC si articola su 2 livelli e cioe' A e B a noi gia' 
noti, ma che e' opportuno richiamare nel senso che con la "A" si possono operare 
tutte la bande di frequenze assegnate ai Radio Amatori ed autorizzate nel Paese 
dove la stazione sara' installata ed operante, mentre con la "B" sara' 
consentito operare solo sulle bande di frequenze superiori ai 30 MHz.

Vediamo ora cosa cosa specifica questa raccomandazione T/R 61-02 E in sintesi:

CRITERI PER GLI ESAMI NAZIONALI

Gli esami nazionali che qualificano il candidato per il rilascio di un 
cerificato d' esame CEPT di livello "A" dovranno riguardare gli argomenti che un 
radio amatore puo' incontrare nell' effettuazione di prove di una stazione di 
amatore noche' con la sua operativit..

Questi argomenti debbono vertere almeno su::

I) NOZIONI TECNICHE, OPERATIVE E SUI REGOLAMENTI
(vedi il programma d' esame - allegato 6 del documento originale)
A) Contenuto Tecnico
01) Teoria sull' elettricita', magnetismo e radiotecnica
02) Componenti
03) Circuiti
04) Ricevitori
05) Trasmettitori
06) Antenne e linee di trasmissione
07) Propagazione
08) Misure
09) Interferenze ed Immunita'
10) Sicurezza
B) Procedure e regolamenti operativi nazionali ed internazionali
01) Alfabeto Fonetico
02) Codice Q (riferito solo al traffico come radio amatori)
03) Abbreviazioni Operative
04) Segnali Internazionali di Pericolo, Traffico d' emergenza di amatore e 
comunicazioni di calamita' naturale
05) L' uso e composizione dei nominativi
06) I principii e gli scopi dei band plans della IARU
C) Regolamenti nazionali ed Internazionali attinenti ai Radio Amatori ed al 
Servizio di Radio Amatore via Satellite
01) Radio Regolamenti ITU
02) Regolamenti CEPT
03) Leggi nazionali e Regolamenti
04) Dimostrazione della conoscenza e della tenuta del Registro di Stazione 
(Log)
II) TRASMISSIONE E RICEZIONE DI SEGNALI IN CODICE MORSE
A) Esame CEPT di livello "A"
il candidato dovra' dimostrare la propria abilita' di inviare e trascrivere in 
codice Morse testi in chiaro, gruppi
numerici, punteggiatura ed altri segnali:
- ad una velocita' non inferiore a 5 parole per minuto
- per una durata di almeno 3 minuti 
- con un massimo di 4 errori in ricezione
- con un massimo in trasmissione di 4 errori corretti ed 1 non corretto
- con l' uso di un tasto telegrafico NON automatico.

L' allegato 2 del documento originale contiene poi una tabella di tutti i Paesi 
CEPT in Europa da cui si rileva l' equivalenza del tipo di licenza nazionale con 
il certificato HAREC di livello "A" o "B" nonche' quale tipo di licenza nazionale 
puo' essere rilasciata ai titolari di certificato HAREC emesso da altre Amministrazioni.
Questo elenco e' composto di 43 Paesi e di questi ve ne sono 13 che non 
aderiscono agli esami CEPT.
Essi sono nell'ordine: Albania, Andorra, Cipro, Grecia, Lettonia, Malta, 
Moldavia, Monaco, Romania, Federazione Russa, San Marino, Repubblica di 
Slovacchia, Citt. del Vaticano.

L' allegato 4 invece contiene un elenco di 3 Paesi non CEPT che tuttavia 
aderiscono al certificato HAREC.
Essi sono: Australia, Israele e Sud Africa.

L' allegato 5 infine specifica quali dati dovro' contenere il certificato HAREC 
per entrambi i livelli, che sara' redatto nella lingua del paese che lo emette 
e nelle 3 lingue (Inglese, Francese e Tedesco).

Non e' chiaro se le Amministrazioni interessate che rilasciano delle patenti 
tipo la nostra dovranno apporre un timbro (in 3 lingue) come avviene gia' da noi 
per le licenze oppure verra' adottato un nuovo stampato.
E' probabile che vi possa essere un nuovo tipo di patente, senza fotografia, ma 
questo lo dovra'. decidere il nostro Ministero delle Comunicazioni.

Infine l' allegato 6 (che consta di ben 10 pagine) contiene il programma di 
esame per i certificati HAREC di livello "A" oppure "B" che mi pare interessante 
conoscere nei contenuti, perche' indipendentemente dalla parte teorica, contiene 
delle novita' per i futuri candidati tipo l' alfabeto fonetico, il codice Q ad 
uso per Radioamatori, le abbreviazioni ecc. 
Tempo permettendo vedro' di fare anche la traduzione di tutta la 
raccomandazione.

Chi fosse poi interessato ad avere altri chiarimenti mi faccia la richiesta via 
E-mail scrivendo a: I4CMF@arrl.net e sar. mia premura rispondere.

Cordiali saluti e sempre QRV Manolo, I4CMF
------------------------------------

Ora di seguito il testo originale in inglese
della raccomandazione T/R 61-02 della CEPT


Recommendation T/R 61-02 (Chester 1990, revised in Nicosia 1994 and The Hague 
2001)


HARMONISED AMATEUR RADIO EXAMINATION CERTIFICATES


Recommendation proposed by the Working Group "Radio Regulatory" (RR)

Text of the Recommendation adopted by the "European Radiocommunications 
Committee" (ERC):

INTRODUCTION

The Recommendation as approved in 1990 makes it possible for CEPT 
Administrations to issue a Harmonised Amateur 
Radio Examination Certificate (HAREC). The HAREC document shows proof of 
successfully passing an amateur radio 
examination which complies with the Examination Syllabus for HAREC level A or B. 
It facilitates the issuing of an 
individual licence to radio amateurs who stay in a country for a longer term 
than that mentioned in CEPT Recommenda-
tion T/R 61-01 (revision 1992). It also facilitates the issuing of an individual 
licence to a radio amateur returning to his 
native country showing the HAREC certificate issued by a foreign Administration.

The Recommendation as revised in 1994 has the aim to make it possible for non-
CEPT countries to participate in this 
system. This revision is comparable to the extension of Recommendation T/R 61-01 
to non-CEPT countries. The 
provisions for this extension are found in the new Annexes 3 and 4.

The original Recommendation had to be adapted slightly, but retains the 
applicability with CEPT as before. Annexes 3 
and 4 of the original Recommendation are renumbered as resp. Annexes 5 and 6.

The revision of 2001 lowered the requirements for sending and receiving Morse 
code signals from 12 words per minute 
to 5 words per minute.

"The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations,

considering

a) that the Radio Amateur Service is a service according to the ITU Radio 
Regulations article 1 and governed by the ITU 
Radio Regulations and national regulations,

b) that Administrations are responsible, in accordance with article 32 of the 
ITU Radio Regulations, for taking such 
measures as they judge necessary to verify the operational and technical 
qualifications of radio amateurs. Additionally 
radio amateurs shall not operate on frequencies below 30 MHz, unless they have 
proved their ability to send correctly 
by hand and to receive correctly by ear texts in Morse code signals,

c) that significant differences between the existing national regulations and 
licence conditions impede the 
radiocommunication activities by licensed radio amateurs outside their own 
country,

d) that in an international context the International Amateur Radio Union has 
supported the concept of the 
harmonisation of examination levels concerning the radio amateur service,

e) that CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-01 concerns only temporary use of portable 
and mobile radio stations in CEPT 
and non-CEPT countries,

f) that CEPT countries and non-CEPT countries are mutually seeking to 
harmonise regulations and matters also 
concerning non commercial and recreational activities of their citizens,

noting

a) that it is highly desirable to establish a common arrangement for radio 
amateurs who wish to use amateur radio 
stations in another country in which they are taking resident,


b) that a common approach can be found in spite of the great variety of classes 
of amateur licenses and examinations 
prevailing in the different CEPT countries and non-CEPT countries,

c) that on the basis of this commonality it is possible to designate which 
national classes of amateur licences and 
examinations are of a similar nature,

d) that in general good experience has been gained by the introduction of 
Recommendation T/R 61-01 although the 
classification of the various national licence classes into the two CEPT licence 
classes causes some difficulties 
regarding the minimum examination standard,

e) that despite the procedures of this Recommendation, Administrations have 
the right to require separate bilateral 
agreements when recognising the radio amateur certificates issued by foreign 
Administrations,

recommends

a) that CEPT Administrations issue a mutually recognised Harmonised Amateur 
Radio Examination Certificate to those 
passing the relevant national examinations corresponding to CEPT examination 
levels A or B (see Annex 1),

b) that Administrations, not being members of CEPT, accepting the provisions 
of this Recommendation, may apply for 
participation in accordance with the conditions laid down in Annexes 3 and 4,

c) that Administrations participating in this system agree, subject to their 
national laws and regulations to issue national 
licences corresponding to CEPT examination level A or B to foreign nationals who 
possesses a Harmonised Amateur 
Radio Examination Certificate issued by an Administration participating in this 
system and who stay in their country 
for a period longer than three months,

d) that licenses issued under c) will be renewed by the issuing 
Administration,

e) that any person who has obtained a Harmonised Amateur Radio Examination 
Certificate in any country participating 
in this system, has the right on return to his own country to obtain a licence 
there without having to pass a further 
examination,

f) that licences granted under this Recommendation shall cover the operation 
of fixed, mobile and portable radio 
amateur stations,

g) that the provisions of Recommendation T/R 61-01 shall continue to apply to 
radio amateurs making short stays in 
other CEPT countries and non-CEPT countries participating in the T/R 61-01 
system."


ANNEX 1

CONDITIONS FOR ISSUE OF HARMONISED AMATEUR RADIO EXAMINATION CERTIFICATE 
(HAREC)

1.a A Harmonised Amateur Radio Examination Certificate will be issued by CEPT 
Administrations to persons who 
have passed a national examination for radio amateurs that meets the criteria 
set out in paragraph 2 below. (The 
national classes corresponding to such examinations are set out in Column 3 of 
Annex 2).

1.b A Harmonised Amateur Radio Examination Certificate will be issued by non-
CEPT Administrations to persons 
who have passed a national examination for radio amateurs that meets the 
criteria set out in paragraph 2 below. 
(The national licences corresponding to such examinations are set out in Column 
3 of Annex 4).

1.c A Harmonised Amateur Radio Examination Certificate will be issued, on 
request, by CEPT Administrations to 
radio amateurs who have passed the relevant national examination prior to the 
introduction of the harmonised 
examination syllabus.

2. Criteria for national examinations

National examinations which qualify the examinee for a CEPT examination 
level A certificate shall cover the 
subjects that a radio amateur may encounter in conducting tests with an amateur 
station and with its operation.
They must include at least:

i) Technical, operational and regulatory matters
(see the examination syllabus Annex 6)

a) TECHNICAL CONTENT
1. Electrical, Magnetic and Radio Theory
2. Components
3. Circuits
4. Receivers
5. Transmitters
6. Antennas and Transmission Lines
7. Propagation
8. Measurements
9. Interference and Immunity
10. Safety

b) NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL OPERATING RULES AND PROCEDURES
1. Phonetic Alphabet
2. Q-code (as far as radio amateur traffic is concerned)
3. Operational Abbreviations
4. International Distress Signs, Amateur emergency traffic and natural 
disaster communications
5. The use and composition of call signs
6. The principles and purposes of the IARU band plans

c) NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS RELEVANT TO THE RADIO AMATEUR AND 
RADIO AMATEUR 
SATELLITE SERVICE
1. ITU Radio Regulations
2. CEPT Regulations
3. National Laws and Regulations
3.1 Demonstrate knowledge of maintaining a log


ii) Sending and receiving Morse code signals

a) CEPT examination level A
The examinee is required to demonstrate his ability to send and transcribe in 
Morse code, plain texts, number 
groups, punctuation and other signs:
? at a speed not less than 5 words per minute
? for a duration of at least 3 minutes
? with a maximum of 4 errors in reception
? with a maximum of 1 uncorrected and 4 corrected errors in transmission
? using a non-automatic Morse key

CEPT examination level A
A licence based on CEPT examination level A allows the use of all frequency 
bands allocated to the radio amateur 
service and authorised in the country where the amateur station is to be 
operated.

CEPT examination level B
A licence based on CEPT examination level B, not including the requirements for 
sending and receiving Morse 
code signals, allows the use of amateur stations in the frequency bands above 30 
MHz which have been allocated to 
the amateur radio service and authorised in the country where the amateur 
station is to be operated.

National licences corresponding to CEPT examination levels
National licences corresponding to CEPT examination levels A and B are shown in 
Column 3 of Annex 2 and 
Annex 4.
Column 4 of Annex 2 and Annex 4 show the licences Administrations will issue to 
holders of the HAREC from 
other countries.

3. The HAREC document

The Harmonised Amateur Radio Examination Certificate shall contain at least the 
following information in the 
language of the country of issue as well as in English, French and German:

a) a statement to the effect that the holder has passed an examination, meeting 
the requirements for a CEPT 
examination level A or B certificate
b) the holder's name and date of birth
c) the CEPT examination level of certificate
d) the date of issue
e) the issuing authority.

This document should be in the form set out in Annex 5.


ANNEX 2

NATIONAL LICENCE CLASSES EQUIVALENT TO CEPT EXAMINATION LEVELS A AND B

2
3
National Licences
Equivalent to:

4
National Licences to be issued 
to holders of a HAREC issued 
by other Administrations

Country
LEVEL A
LEVEL B
LEVEL A
LEVEL B
Albania




Austria
1
2
1
2
Andorra




Belgium
C
B
C
B
Bosnia and Herzegovina
A, B, C
D
A, B, C
D
Bulgaria
1
2
1
2
Croatia
A
B, C
A
C
Cyprus




Czech Republic
A, B, C
D
B
D
Denmark
A
C
A
C
Estonia
A , B 
C
A
C
Finland
Y
T
Y
T
France
E
C
E
C
Germany
1
2
1
2
Greece




Hungary
RHB, RHC
URHB, URHB
RHB, RHC
URHB, URHC
Iceland
A, B, C
T
A, B, C
T
Ireland
A
B
A
B
Italy
General
limited
general
Limited
Latvia




Liechtenstein
1, 2
3, 4
1, 2
3, 4
Lithuania
A
B
A
B
Luxembourg
A
B
A
B
Malta




Moldova




Monaco




Netherlands
A
C
A
C
Norway
A
-
A
-
Poland
1
2
1
2
Portugal
A, B 

A
B4
Romania




Russian Federation




San Marino




Slovak Republic




Slovenia
1
2, 3
1
3
Spain
A
B
A
B
Sweden
1
2
1
2
Switzerland
1, 2
3, 4
1, 2
3, 4
Turkey
A
B, C
A
B, C
Ukraine
1, 2
3
1, 2
3
United Kingdom
A
B
A
B
Vatican City




former Yugoslav Republic 
of Macedonia
A
B
C
D


ANNEX 3

PARTICIPATION OF NON-CEPT ADMINISTRATIONS IN THE CEPT RADIO AMATEUR CERTIFICATE
ACCORDING TO THIS RECOMMENDATION

1. APPLICATION

1.1. Administrations, not being members of CEPT, may apply for participation in 
the CEPT arrangements for 
Harmonised Amateur Radio Examination Certificates regulated by this 
Recommendation. Applications shall be 
sent to CEPT European Radiocommunications Office (ERO) in Copenhagen (address: 
Midtermolen 1, DK-2100 
Copenhagen, Denmark).

The information needed to support an application shall include: a list of 
certificate classes in the country con-
cerned; their privileges and the proposed CEPT examination level equivalents. 
Details of national examination 
syllabuses or documents describing the requirements of the national certificate 
classes and their privileges shall 
be enclosed with the application.

All the details mentioned above must be submitted in one of the official 
languages of the CEPT (English, French 
or German).

2 . PROCEDURES OF APPLICATIONS

2.1 The CEPT ERC shall check, based on this Recommendation, each application to 
determine the equivalence of the 
national licence classes to the harmonised CEPT classes and to assess the 
acceptability of any deviations from this 
Recommendation.

2.2 When the ERC has agreed to accept the participation of a non-CEPT country 
it notifies the applying 
Administration and arranges for the ERO to include the relevant details in Annex 
4.

2.3 A CEPT Administration requiring a separate bilateral agreement to apply 
this Recommendation with a non-
CEPT Administration, shall indicate this in a footnote in Annex 2.

2.4 A non-CEPT Administration requiring a separate bilateral agreement to apply 
this Recommendation with a 
CEPT Administration, shall include this in a footnote in Annex 4.


ANNEX 4

TABLE OF EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN NATIONAL CLASSES OF NON-CEPT COUNTRIES
AND
CEPT EXAMINATION LEVELS A and B

2
3
National Licences
equivalent to:

4
National Licences to be issued to 
holders of a HAREC issued by other 
Administrations

Country
LEVEL A
LEVEL B
LEVEL A
LEVEL B

Australia

Unrestricted
Intermediate 
Limited

Unrestricted

Limited

Israel

A, B

T, C

B

T

South Africa

A Unrestricted

A Restricted

A Unrestricted

A Restricted


ANNEX 5

HARMONISED AMATEUR RADIO EXAMINATION CERTIFICATE (HAREC)
based on CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-02

1. The issuing Administration or responsible issuing Authority
________________________________________________________________________________
_______________
of the country 
________________________________________________________________________________
___
declares herewith that the holder of this certificate has successfully passed an 
amateur radio examination which fulfils 
the requirements laid down by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). 
The passed examination is 
comparable with level ____ 1), as indicated in CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-02 
(HAREC). According to the 
amateur radio regulations of the country _______________________, the holder of 
this certificate is entitled to 
receive the national licence class ____ 1).
For the purpose of CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-01 this national licence class is 
classified as being CEPT licence 
class ____ 1), as listed in Columns 4 respectively 5 of Appendix II of 
Recommendation T/R 61-01.

2. L'Administration ou l'Autorit' comp'tente
________________________________________________________________________________
_______________
du pays 
________________________________________________________________________________
________
certifie que le titulaire du pr'sent certificat a r'ussi un examen de 
radioamateur conform'ment au rSglement de 
l'Union internationale des t'l'communications (UIT). L''preuve en question 
correspond . la classification ____ 1) de 
la Recommandation CEPT T/R 61-02 (HAREC). Conform'ment . la r'glementation 
r'gissant les radioamateurs du 
pays _______________________, le titulaire du pr'sent certificat est en droit 
d'obtenir la licence nationale de la 
cat'gorie ____ 1).
En application de la Recommandation CEPT T/R 61-01, la licence nationale de 
cette cat'gorie correspond . la 
classification ____ 1), comme d'fini dans les colonnes 4 respectivement 5 de 
l'Annexe II de la Recommandation 
CEPT T/R 61-01.

3. Die ausstellende Verwaltung oder zust"ndige Beh"rde
________________________________________________________________________________
_______________
des Landes 
________________________________________________________________________________
_____
erkl"rt hiermit, dass der Inhaber dieser Bescheinigung eine Amateurfunkpr�fung 
erfolgreich abgelegt hat, welche den 
Erfordernissen entspricht, wie sie von der Internationalen Fernmeldeunion (ITU) 
festgelegt sind. Die abgelegte 
Pr�fung entspricht nach CEPT-Empfehlung T/R 61-02 (HAREC) der Stufe ____ 1). 
Gem" Amateurfunkbe-
stimmungen des Landes _______________________ hat der Inhaber dieser 
Bescheinigung Anspruch auf eine 
nationale Amateurfunkgenehmigung der Klasse ____ 1).
In Anwendung der CEPT-Empfehlung T/R 61-01 ist diese nationale 
Genehmigungsklasse als CEPT-
Genehmigungsklasse ____ 1) eingestuft, wie dies in Spalten 4 bzw. 5 von Anhang 
II der CEPT-Empfehlung T/R 61-
01 aufgef�hrt ist.

4. Officials requiring information about this certificate should address 
their enquiries to the issuing national Authority 
or the issuing Administration as indicated above.

Les autorit's officielles d'sirant des informations sur ce document devront 
adresser leurs demandes . l'Autorit' 
nationale comp'tente mentionn'e ci-dessous.

Beh"rden, die Ausk�nfte �ber diese Bescheinigung erhalten m"chten, sollten ihre 
Anfragen an die genannte 
ausstellende nationale Beh"rde oder die ausstellende Verwaltung richten.

Address/Adresse/Anschrift
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________
Telephone/T'l'phone/Telefon: 
________________________________________________________________________
Telex/T'lex/Telex:______________________________________________________________
____________________
Telefax/T'l'fax/Telefax: 
_____________________________________________________________________________

Signature/ Official stamp
Signature/ Cachet officiel
Unterschrift/ Offizieller Stempel

ANNEX 6

EXAMINATION SYLLABUS FOR HAREC LEVEL A AND/OR B

INTRODUCTION

This syllabus has been produced for the guidance of the Administrations so that 
they may prepare their national [amateur 
radio] examinations for the CEPT Harmonised Amateur Radio Examination 
Certificate (HAREC).

The scope of the examination is limited to subjects relevant to tests and 
experiments with amateur stations conducted by 
radio amateurs. These include circuits and their diagrams; questions may relate 
to circuits using both integrated circuits 
and discreet components.

a) Where quantities are referred to, candidates should know the units in 
which these quantities are expressed, as well as 
the generally used multiples and sub-multiples of these units.

b) Candidates must be familiar with the compound of the symbols.

c) Candidates must know the following mathematical concepts and operations:
? adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing
? fractions
? powers of ten, exponentials
? squaring
? square roots
? inverse values
? interpretation of linear and non-linear graphs

d) Candidates must be familiar with the formulae used in this syllabus and be 
able to transpose them.

HARMONISED AMATEUR RADIO EXAMINATION CERTIFICATE (HAREC)

i) Technical, operational and regulatory matters

a) TECHNICAL CONTENT

1. ELECTRICAL, ELECTRO-MAGNETIC AND RADIO THEORY
1.1 Conductivity
1.2 Sources of electricity
1.3 Electric field
1.4 Magnetic field
1.5 Electromagnetic field
1.6 Sinusoidal signals
1.7 Non-sinusoidal signals
1.8 Modulated signals
1.9 Power and energy

2. COMPONENTS
2.1 Resistor
2.2 Capacitor
2.3 Coil
2.4 Transformers application and use
2.5 Diode
2.6 Transistor
2.7 Heat dissipation
2.8 Miscellaneous 


3. CIRCUITS
3.1 Combination of components
3.2 Filter
3.3 Power supply
3.4 Amplifier
3.5 Detector
3.6 Oscillator
3.7 Phase Locked Loop [PLL]

4. RECEIVERS
4.1 Types
4.2 Block diagrams
4.3 Operation and function of the following stages
4.4 Receiver characteristics

5. TRANSMITTERS
5.1 Types
5.2 Block diagrams
5.3 Operation and function of the following stages
5.4 Transmitter characteristics

6. ANTENNAS AND TRANSMISSION LINES
6.1 Antenna types
6.2 Antenna characteristics
6.3 Transmission lines

7. PROPAGATION

8. MEASUREMENTS
8.1 Making measurements
8.2 Measuring instruments

9. INTERFERENCE AND IMMUNITY
9.1 Interference in electronic equipment
9.2 Cause of interference in electronic equipment
9.3 Measures against interference

10. ELECTRICAL SAFETY

b) NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL OPERATING RULES AND PROCEDURES

1. Phonetic Alphabet
2. Q-Code
3. Operational Abbreviations
4. International Distress Signs, Emergency traffic and natural disaster 
communication
5. Call signs
6. IARU band plans

c) NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS RELEVANT TO THE AMATEUR RADIO AND 
RADIO AMATEUR 
SATELLITE SERVICE

1. ITU Radio Regulations
2. CEPT Regulations
3. National Laws, Regulations and Licence conditions


ii) Sending and receiving Morse code signals

a) TECHNICAL CONTENT

CHAPTER 1

1. ELECTRICAL, ELECTRO-MAGNETIC AND RADIO THEORY

1.1 Conductivity
? Conductor, semiconductor and insulator
? Current, voltage and resistance
? The units ampere, volt and ohm
? Ohm's Law [E=I.R]
? Kirchhoff's Laws
? Electric power [P=E.I]
? The unit watt
? Electric energy [W=P.t]
? The capacity of a battery [ampere-hour]

1.2 Sources of electricity
? Voltage source, source voltage [EMF], short circuit current, internal 
resistance and terminal voltage
? Series and parallel connection of voltage sources

1.3 Electric field
? Electric field strength
? The unit volt/metre
? Shielding of electric fields

1.4 Magnetic field
? Magnetic field surrounding live conductor
? Shielding of magnetic fields

1.5 Electromagnetic field
? Radio waves as electromagnetic waves
? Propagation velocity and its relation with frequency and wavelength
? Polarisation

1.6 Sinusoidal signals
? The graphic representation in time
? Instantaneous value, amplitude [Emax], effective [RMS] value 
and average value
? Period and duration of period
? Frequency
? The unit hertz
? Phase difference

1.7 Non-sinusoidal signals
? Audio signals
? Square wave
? The graphic representation in time
? D.C. voltage component, fundamental wave and higher harmonics

1.8 Modulated signals
? Amplitude modulation
? Phase modulation, frequency modulation and single-sideband modulation

? Frequency deviation and modulation index

? Carrier, sidebands and bandwidth
? Waveform

1.9 Power and energy
? The power of sinusoidal signals

? Power ratios corresponding to the following dB values: 0 dB, 3 dB, 6 dB, 10 dB 
and 20 dB [both positive 
and negative]
? The input/output power ratio in dB of series-connected amplifiers and/or 
attenuators
? Matching [maximum power transfer]
? The relation between power input and output and efficiency 
? Peak Envelope Power [p.e.p.]

CHAPTER 2

2. COMPONENTS

2.1 Resistor
? The unit ohm
? Resistance
? Current/voltage characteristic
? Power dissipation
? Positive and negative temperature coefficients [PTC and NTC]

2.2 Capacitor
? Capacitance
? The unit farad
? The relation between capacitance, dimensions and dielectric. (Qualitative 
treatment only)
Xc = __1__ 
2?fC

? The reactance

? Phase relation between voltage and current
? Characteristics of fixed and variable capacitors: air, mica, plastic, ceramic 
and electrolytic capacitors
? Temperature coefficient
? Leakage current

2.3 Coil
? Self-inductance
? The unit henry
? XL = 2?fL ?
? The effect of number of turns, diameter, length and core material on 
inductance. (Qualitative treatment 
only)
? The reactance 
? Phase relation between current and voltage
? Q-factor
? Skin effect
? Losses in core materials

2.4 Transformers application and use
? Pprim = Psec ?

? Ideal transformer

? The relation between turn ratio and:
usec = nsec 
uprim nprim 

? voltage ratio

isec = nprim 
iprim nsec

? current ratio

? impedance ratio. (Qualitative treatment only)

? Transformers


2.5 Diode
? Use and application of diodes:
? Rectifier diode, zener diode, LED [light-emitting diode], voltage-variable and 
capacitor [varicap]
? Reverse voltage and leakage current

2.6 Transistor
? PNP- and NPN-transistor
? Amplification factor
? Field-effect transistor [N channel and P channel, j-FET]
? The resistance between gate and source
? The transistor in the:
? common emitter [source] circuit
? common base [gate] circuit
? common collector [drain] circuit
? input and output impedances of the above circuits
? method of biasing

2.7 Miscellaneous
? Simple thermionic device [valve]
? Simple digital circuits

CHAPTER 3

3. CIRCUITS

3.1 Combination of components
? Series and parallel circuits of resistors, coils, capacitors, transformers and 
diodes
? Current and voltage in these circuits
? Impedance of these circuits

3.2 Filter
? Series-tuned and parallel-tuned circuit:
? Impedance
? Frequency characteristic

? Resonant frequency

? Quality factor of a tuned circuit
? Bandwidth
? Band-pass filter
? Low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters composed of passive 
elements
? Frequency response
? Pi filter and T filter
? Quartz crystal

3.3 Power supply
? Circuits for half-wave and full-wave rectification and the Bridge rectifier
? Smoothing circuits
? Stabilisation circuits in low voltage supplies

3.4 Amplifier
? Lf and hf amplifiers
? Amplification factor
? Amplitude/frequency characteristic and bandwidth
? Class A, A/B, B and C biasing
? Harmonics [non-linear distortion]


3.5 Detector
? AM detectors
? Diode detector
? Product detector
? FM detectors
? Slope detector
? Foster-Seeley discriminator
? CW/SSB detectors

3.6 Oscillator
? Factors affecting frequency and frequency stability conditions necessary for 
oscillation
? LC oscillator
? Crystal oscillator, overtone oscillator

3.7 Phase Locked Loop [PLL]
? Control loop with phase comparator circuit

CHAPTER 4

4. RECEIVERS

4.1 Types
? Single and double superheterodyne receiver

4.2 Block diagrams
? CW receiver [A1A]
? AM receiver [A3E]
? SSB receiver for suppressed carrier telephony [J3E]
? FM receiver [F3E]

4.3 Operation and function of the following stages (Block diagram treatment 
only)
? HF amplifier
? Oscillator [fixed and variable]
? Mixer
? Intermediate frequency amplifier
? Limiter
? Detector
? Beat frequency oscillator
? Crystal calibrator
? LF amplifier
? Automatic gain control
? S meter
? Squelch

4.4 Receiver characteristics (simple description treatment)
? Adjacent-channel
? Selectivity
? Sensitivity
? Stability
? Image frequency
? Intermodulation; cross modulation


CHAPTER 5

5. TRANSMITTERS

5.1 Types
? Transmitter with or without frequency translation
? Frequency multiplication

5.2 Block diagrams
? CW transmitter [A1A]
? SSB transmitter with suppressed carrier telephony [J3E]
? FM transmitter [F3E]

5.3 Operation and functions of the following stages (Block diagram treatment 
only)
? Mixer
? Oscillator
? Buffer
? Driver
? Frequency multiplier
? Power amplifier
? Output filter [pi-filter]
? Frequency modulator
? SSB modulator
? Phase modulator
? Crystal filter

5.4 Transmitter characteristics (simple description)
? Frequency stability
? RF-bandwidth
? Sidebands
? Audio-frequency range
? Non-linearity
? Output impedance
? Output power
? Efficiency
? Frequency deviation
? Modulation index
? CW key clicks and chirps
? Spurious hf radiations
? Cabinet radiations

CHAPTER 6

6. ANTENNAS AND TRANSMISSION LINES

6.1 Antenna types
? Centre fed half-wave antenna
? End fed half-wave antenna
? Folded dipole
? Quarter-wave vertical antenna [ground plane]
? Antenna with parasitic elements [Yagi]
? Parabolic antenna
? Trap dipole


6.2 Antenna characteristics
? Distribution of the current and voltage
? Impedance at the feed point
? Capacitive or inductive impedance of a non-resonant antenna
? Polarisation
? Antenna gain
? Effective radiated power [e.r.p.]
? Front-to-back ratio
? Horizontal and vertical radiation diagrams

6.3 Transmission lines
? Parallel conductor line
? Coaxial cable
? Waveguide
? Characteristic impedance [Z0]
? Velocity factor
? Standing-wave ratio
? Losses
? Balun
? Quarter-wave line as impedance transformer [Z0ý=Zin.Zout]
? Open and short-circuited lines as tuned circuits
? Antenna tuning units

CHAPTER 7

7. PROPAGATION

? Ionospheric layers
? Critical frequency
? Influence of the sun on the ionosphere
? Maximum Usable Frequency
? Ground wave and sky wave, angle of radiation and skip distance
? Fading
? Troposphere
? The influence of the height of antennas on the distance that can be covered 
[radio horizon]
? Temperature inversion
? Sporadic E-reflection
? Auroral reflection

CHAPTER 8

8. MEASUREMENTS

8.1 Making measurements
? Measurement of:
? DC and AC voltages and currents
? Measuring errors:
? Influence of frequency
? Influence of waveform
? Influence of internal resistance of meters
? Resistance
? DC and RF power [average power, Peak Envelope Power]
? Voltage standing-wave ratio
? Waveform of the envelope of an RF signal
? Frequency
? Resonant frequency


8.2 Measuring instruments
Making measurements using:
? Moving-coil meter
? Multi-range meter
? Reflectometer bridge
? Frequency counter
? Absorption frequency meter
? Dip meter
? Oscilloscope

CHAPTER 9

9. INTERFERENCE AND IMMUNITY

9.1 Interference in electronic equipment
? Blocking
? Interference with the desired signal
? Intermodulation
? Detection in audio circuits

9.2 Cause of interference in electronic equipment
? Field strength of the transmitter
? Spurious radiation of the transmitter [parasitic radiation, harmonics]
? Undesired influence on the equipment:
? via the antenna input [aerial voltage, input selectivity]
? via other connected lines
? by direct radiation

9.3 Measures against interference
Measures to prevent and eliminate interference effects:
? Filtering
? Decoupling
? Shielding

CHAPTER 10

10. SAFETY
? The human body
? Mains power supply
? High voltages
? Lightning

b) NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL OPERATING RULES AND PROCEDURES

CHAPTER 1

1. PHONETIC ALPHABET

A = Alpha
B = Bravo
C = Charlie
D = Delta
E = Echo
F = Foxtrot
G = Golf
H = Hotel
I = India
J = Juliet
K = Kilo
L = Lima
M = Mike
N = November
O = Oscar
P = Papa
Q = Quebec
R = Romeo
S = Sierra
T = Tango
U = Uniform
V = Victor
W = Whiskey
X = X-ray
Y = Yankee
Z = Zulu

CHAPTER 2

2. Q-CODE

Code
QRK
QRM
QRN
QRO
QRP
QRS
QRT
QRZ
QRV
QSB
QSL
QSO
QSY

QRX
QTH
Question
What is the readability of my signals?
Are you being interfered with?
Are you troubled by static?
Shall I increase transmitter power?
Shall I decrease transmitter power?
Shall I send more slowly?
Shall I stop sending?
Who is calling me?
Are you ready?
Are my signals fading?
Can you acknowledge receipt?
Can you communicate with ... direct?
Shall I change to transmission on another 
frequency?
When will you call again?
What is your position in latitude and 
longitude (or according to any other 
indication)?
Answer
The readability of your signals is ...
I am being interfered with
I am troubled by static
Increase transmitter power
Decrease transmitter power
Send more slowly
Stop sending
You are being called by ...
I am ready
Your signals are fading.
I am acknowledging receipt.
I can communicate ... direct
Change transmission to another frequency

I will call you again at ... hours on ... kHz (or MHz)
My position is ... latitude, ... longitude (or according to 
any other indication)

CHAPTER 3

3. OPERATIONAL ABBREVIATIONS AS USED IN THE AMATEUR SERVICE

AR *) End of transmission
BK Signal used to interrupt a transmission in progress
CQ General call to all stations
CW Continuous wave
DE From, used to separate the call sign of the station called from that 
of the calling station
K Invitation to transmit
MSG Message
PSE Please
RST Readability, signal-strength, tone-report
R Received
RX Receiver
TX Transmitter
UR Your
VA *) End of work

*) In Morse transmitted as one coherent character.

CHAPTER 4

4. INTERNATIONAL DISTRESS SIGNS, EMERGENCY TRAFFIC AND NATURAL DISASTER 
COMMUNICATION

Distress signs:
? radiotelegraph ...---... [SOS]
? radiotelephone "MAYDAY"
? Resolution No. 640 of the Radio Regulations [ITU]
? International use of the amateur station in the event of national disasters
Frequency bands allocated to the amateur service


CHAPTER 5

5. CALL SIGNS
? Identification of the amateur station
? Use of the call signs
? Composition of call signs
? National prefixes

CHAPTER 6

6. IARU BAND PLANS
? IARU band plans
? Purposes

c) NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS RELEVANT TO THE AMATEUR RADIO AND 
RADIO AMATEUR 
SATELLITE SERVICE

CHAPTER 1

1. ITU RADIO REGULATIONS
? Definition Amateur Service and Amateur Satellite Service
? Definition Amateur station
? Article 32 Radio Regulations
? Status Amateur Service and Amateur Satellite Service
? ITU Radio Regions

CHAPTER 2

2. CEPT REGULATIONS
? Recommendation T/R 61-01
? Temporary use of amateur stations in CEPT countries
? Temporary use of amateur stations in NON-CEPT countries which participate in 
the T/R 61-01 system

CHAPTER 3

3. NATIONAL LAWS, REGULATIONS AND LICENCE CONDITIONS
? National laws
? Regulations and licence conditions
? Demonstrate knowledge of maintaining a log
? log keeping
? purpose
? recorded data

ii) Sending and receiving MORSE code signals

The examinee is required to demonstrate his ability to send and transcribe in 
Morse code, plain texts, figure 
groups, punctuation and other signs:
? At a speed not less than 5 words per minute
? For a duration of at least 3 minutes
? With a maximum of 4 errors in reception
? With a maximum of 1 uncorrected and 4 corrected errors in transmission
? Using a non automatic Morse key
Sending and receiving Morse code signals at a speed not less than 12 words per 
minute.
Sending and receiving Morse code signals at a speed not less than 5 words per 
minute.
With examination in Morse code telegraphy, manual transmission and reception.
Without examination in Morse code telegraphy.
1) To fill in HAREC Level A, B

T/R 61-02 E
Page 2
T/R 61-02 E
Page 1
Distribution: B
Edition of July 29, 1994
Edition of March 6, 2001
T/R 61-02 E
Page 3
Edition of February 15, 2001
Edition of July 29, 1994
Edition of June 19, 2001
T/R 61-02 E
Page 7
Edition of February 8, 2000
Edition of July 29, 1994
Edition of July 29, 1994
Edition of July 29, 1994
Edition of July 29, 1994
Edition of March 6, 2001
Edition of March 6, 2001
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MERCATINO RADIOAMATORIALE

Riceviamo
da: Filippo Biondi iw6cvt


Caro Paolo, sarei grato se inseriresti nello spazio riservato al mercatino
dell'usato del tuo RADIOGIORNALE il seguente annuncio:

VENDO Kenwood TS-440S con accordatore d'antenna incorporato RTX 0-30 Mhz a
ť. 1.200.000 causa inutilizzo.
Per eventuali contatti il mio numero E' 338-4772068 oppure via e-mail
all'indirizzo filippobiondi@libero.it

Ti ringrazio anticipatamente e complimenti per l'iniziativa.

IW6CVT Biondi Filippo



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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COLLABORATE A QUESTA INIZIATIVA
INVIANDO I VOSTRI ARTICOLI DA 
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Paolo Mattioli I0PMW

paolo.mattioli@tin.it

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Pagina creata il 27 ottobre 2001

Contatore visite dal 27 ottobre 2001

Ultimo aggiornamento: giovedý 01 novembre 2001

Contatore visite dal 14 ottobre 2000