|Long Range Maritime Radio Communications 1920 - 2000||Long range maritime radio communications in the United
Kingdom, which started from humble beginnings in 1920.
Broadcasting to ships had been taking place since the early days of radio; the GPO's long-wave stations at Poldhu and Caernarvon had been conducting two-way traffic with ships within a few hundred miles of the United Kingdomprior to the First World War. However, no long-range system existed until 1919 when the GPO and the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company agreed to convert a redundant Imperial Wireless chain receiving station at Devizes in Wiltshire for long-range maritime use. Comprising of a receiver and a 6-Kilowatt valve transmitter, station ''GKT' was opened for service earlyin 1920, with a guaranteed range of 1,500 miles.
The radio officers at 'GKT' were housed in old army huts, with radiotelegrams being sent to and received from ships up to 5 days from any British port at the rate of 11d (just less than 5p) per word. Radio traffic was keyed to and from the London Central Telegraph office from then operating station for onward delivery.
This two-way "long-range" service proved to be immensely popular, and by 1924 it became necessary to expand the station at Devizes to cope with the increased demand. The GPO constructed a second long-wave transmitter and built a new receiving station at Highbridge(near Burnham-on-Sea) in Somerset, to which most of the radio officers transferred.
By 1926, experiments on short wavelengths had established that world-wide communication could take place. The GPO installed the first maritime short-wave transmitter at Devizes, keyed by operators with receiving equipment at Highbridge that same year. Initial tests proved outstandingly successful, and it became necessary to construct a brand new transmitting station. This station was to be located at Portishead, near Bristol, and thus in 1927 Portishead Radio was born. Three long-wave transmitters were installed, followed in 1929 by a new short-wave transmitter, ultimately resulting in the closure of the Devizes station.
Throughout the 1930s this long-range service expanded greatly, with a
gradual decline in the use of the long-wave(short-range) service, However,
new markets were being discovered, including the use of Portishead by the
Morse code operators on the flying boats, passing traffic from as
Early in 1943, the workload had increased to such levels that Portishead's civilian staff were augmented by naval operators from HMS Flowerdown. Many of the civilian staff were seconded to Government services at home and abroad, not only to man radio stations but to train the many new radio officers needed for convoy work. A special aircraft section was constructed to maintain communications with patrol aircraft in the North Atlantic.
Peacetime brought a return to commercial activities, and with it a vastly increased demand for long-range communications. An 'area scheme'was established in 1946 to enable British and Colonial registered vessels to use naval stations around the world to relay their traffic to Portishead.
installing their own private wires. The Suez crisis in 1956 brought high levels of telegraph traffic in both the to-ship and from-ship directions, leading to increased staffing levels towards the end of the decade.
The 1960s saw the station continue to expand, with increased traffic levels and the development of a telex over radio (TOR) system. A press transmission of news was transmitted by Morse to enable ships to produce their own news-sheets. By 1965, 86 radio officers were handling over 11 million words of traffic per year, and communicating with over 1,000 ships each day. The introduction of the Daily Telegraph transmissions to the QE2 in 1968 by radiotelex was another 'first' for the stations.
April 1970 saw the transfer of the radiotelephone service from Baldock to Portishead. This necessitated the use of extra transmitters at Rugby and Portishead, and the temporary use of an additional control centre at Somerton (Somerset).
The area scheme previously mentioned was terminated in 1972, and with it the Naval presence at Portishead. However, traffic figures continued to rise, with the developing oil market and the deepwater fishing industry all providing work for the station. The leisure market continued to expand, with the early round-the-world yacht races providing valuable publicity for Portishead Radio and its services. By 1974, traffic levels had increased to over 20 million words per year, now handled by 154 radio officers.
Further expansion of the present operating area was impossible, so in 1976 work commenced on a purpose-built building to house the various services then available to ships.
A new computer-based message handling system was installed, and the manual radiotelex service became more popular, resulting in the development of an automatic system.
The Portishead transmitting site was closed in 1978,leaving the sites at Leafield and Ongar, operating alongside the main transmitting site at Rugby. However, the famous name of 'Portishead Radio' was maintainedto provide the maritime community with a familiar and well-known service.
1985 saw the opening of a new aircraft service, providing world-wide 'phone patch' and flight information services. This service proved so popular that many land-based industries based in remote locations in Africa used the 'aero' frequencies, culminating in the opening of the Gateway service, which continues to flourish to this day. Relief agencies, military units, embassies, and industries still use the service, which acts as a lifeline to those located in countries where normal landline links are poor or non-existent.
By the end of the 1980s, satellite communications were making significant inroads into Portishead's traffic figures. It became clear that a severe rationalisation programme was necessary in order for the station to remain viable, which resulted in the closure of the transmitter sites at Leafield and Ongar. The number of operating consoles was reduced in line with the decline in radio traffic, and the number of staff employed fell proportionally.
With the compulsory implementation of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) in 1999 Morse Code was officially phased out as a compulsory communications system for the maritime world. Surprisingly, some ships continued to use this mode of communication even in the year 2000.
Portishead Radio eventually closed on 30th April 2000.
Portishead Radio was probably, and will probably remain, the most famous maritime radio station in the world. The mere mention of its name provokes fond memories by those radio officers who used the service in its heyday. While these men (and a few women) will eventually die off, the station's place in history is assured.