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The Next Meeting  *** May 4, at 7:00 PM 

Location: ***Bristol Regional Medical Center. Lower level -See hall monitor-

Presentation By:  *** Bob Lilly, W4BCU, Presenting: The three flavors of Earl !

May  Meeting            *** Bob Lilly, W4BCU will hold the presentation for May. His presentation will be on antennas.
If it is on wire antennas or Yagi's  it will be an excellent program. Be sure and try to attend this meeting.

Two Meter Net           ***
Dale Barker, KT4SQ holds a net each Tuesday night @ 9:00 PM on the frequency of 146.670,no tones. Be sure to try to check in. Dale runs a very good net so check in to show him your support. Also this one of the oldest Nets on the East Coast.

Club Dues
Toni Ward, KF4BMW is now taking the club dues for 2017. They run from Jan 1,thru Dec.31 of the same year. You can give them to Toni at the next club meeting or mail hr a check to Toni Ward C/O BARC 305 Honeysuckle Lane, Bristol Tennessee, 37620. Thanks.

Testing Sessions
Ben Morris, K4EDI  and his fellow amateurs who help give the tests are ready and able to go and give the tests after each club meeting.  Ben says the correct change is always appreciated and a duplicate copy of your current license and a photo ID is also required. For more info you may email him at You can also call him at 276/791/0.

FCC issues a Notice of Violation to Solar City for RFI Interference
After an on-site visit and testing by an FCC Enforcement Agent of the ~S9 interference cause to my station by a Solar City solar array located 2 houses away, the FCC issued Solar City a Notice of Violation.
It appears that at least one of the primary interference generating components is a load balancing device called an "optimizer" which is attached to back of each solar panel. Testing by the FCC Agent showed that the interference does not stop until the optimizer is detached from the solar panel. Attempts by Solar City to add filters were unsuccessful and only resulted in a few DB of change.
The optimizer (as well as the rest of the system) is manufactured by Solar Edge. I was told by Solar City when I inquired about them installing a different type of system that this is the only kind of system that Solar City installs. Given this it's not hard to envision that many Solar City installations are causing this type of interference. Fortunately, the FCC is concerned about this issue and is actively working to resolve it.

DX Code of Conduct Pioneer, Proponent Randy Johnson, W6SJ, SK                                                         One of the driving forces behind the DX Code of Conduct, Randy Johnson, W6SJ, of Corona del Mar, California, died on March 27 following complications of heart surgery. A member of ARRL and the First-Class CW Operators Club (FOC), he was 79. Licensed the first time in 1951, Johnson let his ticket lapse when his interests wandered, but then, 50 years after he was first licensed, he took and passed all four US licensing levels in place at the time (2001) and became AE6AX. The following year, he obtained W6SJ. He described his location as “an antenna-challenged environment” but said that made his DXing successes “all the sweeter.” In 2010, Johnson penned an Op-Ed “DX Etiquette“ that appeared in the March 2010 issue of QST. He said the positive feedback led him and “a good-sized band of DXers” to try to do something about poor operating by DXers, especially in DXpedition pileups. They developed the DX Code of Conduct. “We hope that ultimately when every ham gets on the air, he will remember the ethical operating practices that make our hobby so enjoyable,” Johnson said on his profile.

2017 ARRL/TAPR Digital Communications Conference Issues Call for Papers                                             Technical papers are solicited for presentation at the 36th Annual ARRL/TAPR Digital Communications Conference (DCC), set for September 15-17 in St. Louis, Missouri, at the Holiday Inn Airport West in Earth City. Papers will also be published in the Conference Proceedings. Authors do not need to attend the conference to have their papers included in the Proceedings. The submission deadline is July 31, 2017. Submit papers via e-mail or via post to Maty Weinberg, KB1EIB, ARRL, 225 Main St., Newington, CT 06111. Papers will be published exactly as submitted, and authors will retain all rights.

Russian “Buzzer” Disappears, Chinese “Foghorn” Returns                                                                              The International Amateur Radio Union Region 1 (IARU-R1) Monitoring System (IARUMS) March newsletter reports that the Russian “buzzer” on 6,998.0 kHz has disappeared. For a long time the system interfered with the lower edge of the 40-meter band. In addition, a Russian F1B transmission on 7,193 kHz — believed to be emanating from Kaliningrad — has ceased. IARUMS credits German telecoms authorities for submitting complaints and the Russian military. The IARUMS March newsletter further reports that a Chinese over-the-horizon (OTH) burst system radar “foghorn” signal is being heard again on both 40 meters (jumping between 7,128 and 7,187 kHz) and on 20 meters (14,218 kHz). The signals are 10 kHz wide with burst durations of 3.8 and 7.6 seconds. A “numbers” station said to be from the Ukraine SZRU intelligence agency was reported on March 30 on AM (female voice) on 14,212 kHz

Tentec and Alpha UPDATES
It is sad to read the recent email posts on several forums, questioning whether these two companies are out of business or still in business. Both companies are very much alive and slowly progressing.
Recently Dishtronix completed its two new web pages for these companies, migrated all of the data from its old RKR website to the two individual new web sites, and closed down the old site. This is great progress.
UNFORTUNATELY the closing of the old site was seen as an omen of bad news when indeed it is a breath of fresh air!

The new sites are now up and running.

Here are the two new web sites:

Here is the current status of both companies:
ALPHA: Alpha is currently producing 9500 and 8410 amplifiers. Both amplifiers will be back in stock in March (2017) and sitting on the shelves. All back orders have already been filled. Alpha repair service has always been operating and continues to deliver first class service to its customers.
TEN-TEC: Ten-Tec has moved to its new, larger facility and has continuously repaired radios at its Sevierville TN site. It has been getting repaired radios out the door on a daily basis (except for the few days where they were moving shop). There is still no telephone service. Email-only. Service requests should be sent to .
Robert” is answering emails, but only works on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday. If you email on Friday, you need to be patient because he isn’t going to read it until Tuesday. The repair technicians are working five days a week fixing radios.
TEN-TEC production: The current plan is to do a small run of Eagle transceivers. The projected price (stripped) is $1600 to $1700. It is obvious that Ten-Tec cannot compete on price alone with the subsidized engineering in Japan and slave (like) labor in China. If you love Ten-Tec and want a Ten-Tec radio, then you will have to pay what it costs to build a Ten-Tec in USA.
Privately I wish to say thank you to Mike Dishop for all of his efforts to rescue these two traditional American companies. He is fighting an uphill battle and rather than coaching him on, it seems some people would rather re-send false and fake news about his efforts – as if they hope he will fail. Disgusting!

At the end of the day it is up to us to decide whether we want Alpha RF Systems and Ten-Tec to survive, or go the route of Collins, Drake, Hammerlund, Heathkit, and others.
I challenge all of you to join me in applauding Mike Dishop for his efforts to keep these two companies alive, but Mike is beginning to feel like nobody cares anymore, based on the ongoing flow of negative emails.
If you approve of his efforts , PLEASE EXPRESS IT IN AN EMAIL – (he reads our email posts).
Just REPLY here to this email.
You don’t have to send money, just tell Mike you appreciate his efforts.
The ball is in YOUR court. Come on guys, LET’S DO IT.

ARRL Entry-Level License Committee Digs in to Study Survey Results
As its April 7 online survey deadline approaches, the ARRL Board of Directors’ Entry Level License Committee is preparing for a deep dive into what turned out to be an overwhelming response. Committee Chair and New England Division Director Tom Frenaye, K1KI, said the survey’s 8,000 responses, when perhaps 1,500 were anticipated, reflects the high degree of interest in the overall topic. Established by the Board in 2016, the Committee has been gathering input from the Amateur Radio community with an eye toward recommending either a makeover of the Technician license or an altogether new entry-level Amateur Radio license class.
I think it’s our job to come up with the two best proposals,” said Frenaye, conceding that the committee’s work is fraught with details that include reaching a consensus both within the Amateur Radio community and at the FCC, which pays little attention to Amateur Radio generally. For his part, Frenaye started out thinking that a new entry-level license would be the answer, but now he’s leaning more toward changing up the Technician license, in part because he thinks the FCC may be reluctant to create a fourth license class after whittling the number to three in 1999.
It’s not just about numbers, but Amateur Radio’s future. Amateur Radio growth, at approximately 1% a year, is “pretty good,” Frenaye conceded, and in tune with US population growth, but he thinks it could be better, and a big step in that direction is to take a hard look at ham radio’s entry gate. He suggested a new pool of prospective radio amateurs might be more drawn to the hobby from the Maker movement, for example, or from among those who tinker with computer technology or experiment with electronics — areas with high appeal to some young people.
Frenaye said a lot of young newcomers don’t seem to find the current license manual very enticing, possibly due to the Amateur Radio terminology and the manual’s 12th-grade reading level, which he believes should be lower. One interesting statistic plucked from the survey: Just 23% of recently licensed Technicians went through a club, while 65% studied on their own.

The current Technician license is mainly a VHF/UHF license, Frenaye pointed out, with limited privileges on HF, where he believes a lot of newcomers would prefer to operate. “Either the test covers material that’s not needed for a newcomer, or the privileges don’t match well enough with what a newcomer needs to see in ham radio in order to decide whether to continue,” he said. Technician licensees have only CW privileges on HF below 10 meters, “and CW isn’t even a requirement anymore,” Frenaye pointed out. He suggested some HF digital privileges may provide one incentive.
Whether it’s retooling the Technician license to offer newcomers a larger, more attractive slice of Amateur Radio privileges or developing the framework for an entirely new entry-level license, the panel wants to see a more relevant examination with privileges more appropriate to newcomers and better outreach “on both sides of the license” — from exam preparation to operator training and mentoring.
Frenaye is not afraid to respond to critics who say the entry-level license effort and such initiatives as reaching out the Maker Movement are just ARRL ploys to boost the Amateur Radio population and, in turn, League membership.
I guess the answer to that is, ‘Yes, what’s wrong with that?’” he said. “The more trained ham radio operators we have, the more likely we are to actually be able to keep our bands and maybe get new ones.”
The committee has only looked at the first “several thousand” survey responses, Frenaye said. The hard work lies ahead. “It’s going to take a little time to sort through it all,” Frenaye allowed, adding that the committee hopes to have a report to the Board of Directors in July.

VHF/UHF/Microwave Pioneer Don Hilliard, W0PW, SK A pioneer on VHF, UHF, and microwave bands, and the designer of a popular Yagi model, Don Hilliard, W0PW (ex-W0EYE), of Clayton, Oklahoma, died on March 25 following a lengthy period of ill health. An ARRL member, he was 81. “Over the decades, Don made numerous contributions to the hobby and specifically in the VHF, UHF, and microwave arena of Amateur Radio,” said Bill Mc Caa, K0RZ. “He was a pioneer in developing the first amateur equipment for the 900 MHz band in 1983 in anticipation of the band becoming available for amateurs. Don was a founding member of the Central States VHF Society in 1967, as well as of the Microwave Update in 1985.” Hilliard’s Yagi design, based on unpublished work by Peter Biezbicke at the National Bureau of Standards, was legendary in the VHF/UHF community. The antenna was described in “The World Above 50 MHz” (“15-Element Yagi by W0EYE”) in the January 1972 edition of QST. Hilliard also authored articles for QST and QEX.

Former TAPR President Greg Jones, WD5IVD, SK

Past TAPR President Greg Jones, WD5IVD, of Denton, Texas, died on March 30. He was 54. Jones was a professor in the Department of Learning Technologies within the College of Information at the University of North Texas, where he received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees. He received his Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Texas, and was the author of numerous scholarly articles. He served as TAPR’s president from 1993 until 1999. “I am very proud of my time at TAPR,” he once wrote. “I was able, with the help of so many, to take TAPR from the brink of going away into a strong, living organization that 10 years later is still doing important research and education in Amateur Radio digital communications.” He contributed to QEX in the early 1990s.

Free App Allows Blind Hams to Work PSK31                A new, free app — Accessible Digipan — has been released that allows blind hams to operate PSK31. The download includes the app, audio tutorials, detailed written guides, and additional helpful resources, plus DigiPan PSK31 and PSK63 software. ARRL member Richard McDonald, KK6MRH, and Jim Snowbarger, WA0PSS — both blind — developed the program. “Until now, blind hams worldwide have not had any accessible program to work PSK31,” McDonald said. “Now they do.” Accessible Digipan brings together the most popular screen reader, JAWS, and DigiPan, McDonald said, and the app will work with many different kinds of rigs, interfaces, and Windows versions.
Former Sacramento Valley Section Manager Ron Murdock, W6KJ, SK                                                              Former ARRL Sacramento Valley Section Manager Ron Murdock, W6KJ, of Yuba City, California, died on April 1. An ARRL Life Member, Murdock was 76. “Ron’s passion for serving our Amateur Radio community was truly inspiring, and he will be sorely missed,” said current Sacramento Valley SM Dr. Carol Milazzo, KP4MD. Murdock was a US Air Force veteran, who flew 300 combat missions as a B52 radar navigator. He also worked as a substitute teacher for 15 years. Murdock served as ARRL Sacramento Valley Section Manager from 2007 until 2015. He was an Emergency Coordinator from 2005 to 2008, and he was serving as Affiliated Club Coordinator, Assistant Section Manager, Bulletin Manager, and Official Bulletin Station.
Former Kansas Section Manager Orlan Cook, W0OYH, SK                                                                                 Former Kansas Section Manager Orlan Cook, W0OYH, of Shawnee Mission, died on March 28. An ARRL Life Member, he was 85. Cook served for 5 years as Kansas SM, taking office by appointment in 1997 and serving until 2002. He was an ARRL Official Relay Station (ORS) and Official Bulletin Station, and for the past decade or so, he served in an informal public information role as editor of the KAR (Kansas Amateur Radio) newsletter.
Radio Amateurs Support Colombia Landslide Disaster Relief and Recovery Effort
A disastrous landslide in Colombia overnight on March 31-April 1 left more than 260 dead and devastated the town of Mocoa. Many others are injured or missing, and search crews are scrambling to find survivors in the rubble. An emergency Amateur Radio network was activated on 40 meters (7.093-7.095 MHz, to support the relief and recovery effort.
The Mocoa and Garzón Fire Departments are aware of the network and also the additional support of HK3NOL, who is mounting additional antennas,” said Roberto Rey, HK3CW. “Radio amateurs from La Plata and Garzón were critical in supporting personnel and rescuers,” he said. “We’re paying attention [to the situation].”
Heavy rainfall in Colombia’s Putumayo Province triggered the mud and rockslide after a river burst its banks and debris swept into the town, burying homes and residents. President Juan Manuel Santos declared a state of emergency after visiting the town.
early 1,300 National System for Risk and Disaster Management (SNGRD) team members are at work in the area. A flotilla of aircraft, vehicles, and watercraft has been deployed for the effort.
The Doctor Will See You Now!
Speech Equalization, Compression, and Processing is the topic of the current episode of the “ARRL The Doctor is In“ podcast. Listen...and learn!
Sponsored by DX Engineering, “ARRL The Doctor is In” is an informative discussion of all things technical. Listen on your computer, tablet, or smartphone — whenever and wherever you like!
Every 2 weeks, your host, QST Editor-in-Chief Steve Ford, WB8IMY, and the Doctor himself, Joel Hallas, W1ZR, will discuss a broad range of technical topics. You can also e-mail your questions to, and the Doctor may answer them in a future podcast.
Enjoy “ARRL The Doctor is In” on Apple iTunes, or by using your iPhone or iPad podcast app (just search for “ARRL The Doctor is In”). You can also listen online at Blubrry, or at Stitcher (free registration required, or browse the site as a guest) and through the free Stitcher app for iOS, Kindle, or Android devices. If you’ve never listened to a podcast before, download our beginner’s guide.
Club Log is Now a Logbook of The World Trusted Partner
Club Log has become the first logging service to achieve Trusted Partner™ status for Logbook of The World® (LoTW), ARRL and Club Log have announced. Radio amateurs holding LoTW “call sign certificates“ who have uploaded logs to Club Log now can readily cross-post them to the highly secure LoTW — the world’s largest repository for confirming Amateur Radio contacts.
The Trusted Partner program defines the requirements for an online service to store user credentials with acceptable security. All LoTW users, whether or not they work through Club Log as a Trusted Partner, are responsible for ensuring the security of their credentials. Individuals who rely on a Trusted Partner site for security have met the requirement to keep LoTW and their credentials secure. Users who allow their call sign certificates to be compromised or who knowingly exploit compromised credentials may lose the privilege of using LoTW and participating in ARRL-sponsored award programs.
Club Log has implemented security at the level required by the Trusted Partner program, as verified by ARRL’s Information Technology Department. Trusted Partners are re-verified periodically to remain in the program. More information on technical specifications and on current Trusted Partner program members is available on the ARRL website. Other logging sites are invited to join the program by implementing the Trusted Partner standard.
Notwithstanding a Series of Obstacles,” Kids in French Guiana Speak with Space Station
It seemed nothing was going to stand in the way of nine youngsters and their two teachers from Trois Palétuviers (Three Mangroves) School in French Guiana, South America, and their chance to speak with Astronaut Thomas Pesquet, KG5FYG, on the International Space Station via an Amateur Radio link. The Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) contact was set for March 23.
I love talking to kids, their questions are often better than adults’ questions!” Pesquet said on his Facebook page, which has a little video that tells the story of the contact.
A small village of 180 inhabitants between the Amazonian Forest and the Oyapock River — a natural border with Brazil — Trois Palétuviers isn’t all that easy to get to. It is accessible only by dugout canoe; the voyage takes about an hour. At the school, there is no electricity during the day, no internet; and only recently has telephone service become available. The village population is exclusively Native American, many residents having strong ties with Brazil. The school has about 50 students in two classes.
To reach the location where the students would speak with Pesquet entailed not only the hour-long canoe trip but a 3-hour bus journey, and things did not quite go as planned. As the bus neared its destination, the passengers learned that roads to both their primary and back-up locations were blocked due to a strike. The only solution was to use a teacher’s mobile telephone. That’s how the students and their teachers ended up in the small kitchen of a private home.
The contact was a “telebridge,” with W6SRJ in California serving as the Earth station for NA1SS and two-way audio provided via telephone to the contact site, where the youngsters planned to ask a dozen or so questions (they had 17 ready) in French.
Notwithstanding a series of obstacles, the radio conversation between the students and astronaut Thomas Pesquet was a success,” one of the teachers said. “This was Amateur Radio at its best.
Midway and Kure Islands Placed on List of Deleted DXCC Entities
Midway and Kure Islands have been placed on the list of deleted DXCC entities, effective as of August 26, 2016. This came about as an unintended consequence of action last summer by then-President Barack Obama that expanded the Hawaiian Islands west of Ni’ihau Island, making it the largest contiguous protected conservation area under the US flag.
Midway (KH4) had qualified for DXCC status by virtue of its being governed by a separate administration. Because it is now under the administration of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, it becomes a deleted entity. Approximately 50 people live on Midway, including US Fish and Wildlife Service staffers and contractors. The Battle of Midway, a turning point in the Allied World War II Pacific Campaign, took place in June 1942.
Now uninhabited, Kure Island (KH7K), a part of Hawaii, is separated from the rest of the state by Midway; because of that, it had qualified for DXCC status under Section II, 2 (b) (iii) of the DXCC Rules — separation from its “parent” Hawaii. Midway Island’s change in DXCC status in turn made Kure Island no longer eligible for DXCC status, because Kure no longer is separated from the rest of Hawaii by intervening land or islands that are part of another DXCC entity.
Kure Island once was home to a US Coast Guard LORAN station, remnants of which are still evident. It has been a state wildlife sanctuary since 1981.
Neither Midway nor Kure was able to be activated without prior permission, and then only for a planned DXpedition. Only contacts made on August 25, 2016, or earlier will count for these two entities.
Same-Band “Dueling CQs” Now Prohibited in All ARRL Contests
ARRL has clarified its rules for all contests to clearly prohibit the practice of interleaved CQs — also known as “dueling CQs” — on two or more frequencies in the same band. The clarification is an extension of existing rules that permit only “one transmitted signal,” and it formalizes what had been a “gentleman’s agreement.”
ARRL reviewed it, concurred that this is technically occupying two channels, and in consultation with several members of the Board of Directors — who had been contacted by concerned parties — and the Programs and Services Committee, it was concluded we needed to ‘clarify’ our existing rules,” ARRL Contest Branch Manager Bart Jahnke, W9JJ, said.
An explanatory paragraph points out, “The intent of the rules has always been that a participant would use/occupy only a single channel in a given band, changing frequency in band from time to time, leaving a CQ frequency to work a multiplier or to change the CQing frequency as band occupancy or changing propagation dictated, and this rule’s clarification will now give the needed added clarity to that intent.”
The issue arose when a multioperator team successfully employed in-band interleaved CQs in the last ARRL International DX SSB event, substantially boosting their score.
The topic subsequently occupied a lot of bandwidth on the CQ-Contest reflector, where elite contester Frank Donovan, W3LPL, observed, “That doesn’t make it right for [a contest station] to follow this practice that is generally understood to be unacceptable behavior by all of the rest of us.” At the time of the event, however, ARRL rules did not explicitly prohibit the practice, and, as another top contester, Steve London, N2IC, asked, “Falls under the ‘what is not specifically prohibited is allowed’ rule?”
The update brings ARRL’s contest rules in line with those of CQ-sponsored contests, which already prohibit the practice of in-band, interleaved CQs. The IARU HF Championship Contest bans the practice for multioperator entries.
Winter Term 2017 School Club Roundup Scores Now Available
Final scores from the winter term 2017 running of School Club Roundup (SCR) in February have been posted online. SCR is sponsored jointly by ARRL, its Hudson Division Education Task Force, and the Long Island Mobile Amateur Radio Club (LIMARC), with the goal of fostering Amateur Radio contacts with and among school radio clubs. LIMARC receives and checks submitted logs, then passes the results to Bruce Horn, WA7BNM, for posting.
The Elementary/Primary School winner was the Russell Elementary Amateur Radio Club (KM4RE) in Georgia.
The Middle/Intermediate/Junior High School victor was Schofield Middle School (N4SMS) in South Carolina.
Topping the High School field was the LASA High School Amateur Radio Club (K5LBJ) in Texas.
Case Western Reserve University (W8EDU) took first place in the College/University category.
International day of man in space (GAGARIN) !            To honor the historic journey of the Russian Gagarin, and his round elliptical around the Earth, UNESCO designated April 12 as "International Day of Human Space Flight."
Braids done on April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin opened the way for manned missions to space exploration. At even four years after the launch of Sputnik he had opened the space era, was the man to overcome the boundaries of the atmosphere. Supremacy acquired at the height of the space race that saw the US and USSR bitter rivals. Today many things have changed since that first flight that took Gagarin to 108 minutes among the stars and space exploration is considered impossible without a strong and broad international cooperation.

April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin opened the way for manned missions to space exploration. At even four years after the launch of Sputnik he had opened the space era, was the man to overcome the boundaries of the atmosphere. Supremacy acquired at the height of the space race that saw the US and Soviet Union bitter rivals. Today many things have changed since that first flight that took Gagarin to 108 minutes among the stars and space exploration is considered impossible without a strong and broad international cooperation.

This is demonstrated, for example, the International Space Station: the largest structure ever built in space was developed in cooperation between the United States, Russia, Canada, Europe and Japan.
The Earth is blue "I see the Earth. It is blue." With these words, Yuri Gagarin, age twenty-seven, enshrines the dawn of a new era. Since then, the way the man saw the immensity of the universe has not been the same since. The departure is scheduled at 9:07 hours Moscow time zone. Gagarin utters the famous words - поехали! (Pojechali - "let's go!") When taking off in the Vostok 1 (East 1), driven by a computer-controlled basis. The rocket carries him beyond the atmosphere. Gagarin runs an entire elliptical orbit around our planet at a speed of just over 27,000 kilometers times. The maximum orbital altitude of 302 kilometers, the minimum 175. The first manned flight into space, finally ending with the landing in a field near the town of Takhtarova. It lasted less than two hours, more than enough to go down in history. After that adventure, the first cosmonaut of history, the "Cristoforo Colombo" space receives glories and honors by conferring the Order of Lenin, the highest Soviet award, the baptism of the asteroid 1772 Gagarin, named in his honor. Not bad for a boy of humble origins, born of peasant carpenter father and mother in a small village in western European Russia.
Excellent results in science subjects at school, a diploma for machine-building, but one great passion: flying. It was this passion that led him to enter the Russian air force, where he was chosen as a test driver, until 1959, when the candidates entered in the squad for the first flight into space. A life spent in airplanes. And in flight also he met his death. It was only 34 when on March 27, 1968 died on board a training fighter. A year later, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin planted the American flag in the dusty lunar soil. The Volstok Of the total weight of 4.7 tons and 4.4 meters high, the Vostok 1 ( "East 1" in Russian) was made up of two parts: a living form of spherical shape, which housed the astronaut, and a module service provided with the on-board instrumentation, retrorockets necessary to brake and shifting the probe to Earth and 16 tanks containing oxygen and nitrogen. The inhabited capsule was equipped with three portholes, an optical viewer to orient hand, a camera, instrumentation for detecting pressure, temperature and orbital parameters, a hatchback and an ejector seat along more or less as the passenger compartment of a Fiat 500 ( era cosmonaut landed not with the ship, but was expelled outside and parachuted to Earth during re-entry.

MAY 2017

AGCW QRP/QRP Party 1300Z-1900Z, May 1
+ RSGB 80m Club Championship, SSB 1900Z-2030Z, May 1
+ ARS Spartan Sprint 0100Z-0300Z, May 2
+ Phone Fray 0230Z-0300Z, May 3
+ CWops Mini-CWT Test 1300Z-1400Z, May 3 and
1900Z-2000Z, May 3 and
0300Z-0400Z, May 4
+ 432 MHz Spring Sprint 1900 local - 2300 local, May 3
+ MIE 33 Contest 2300Z, May 3 to 0300Z, May 4
+ NRAU 10m Activity Contest 1700Z-1800Z, May 4 (CW) and
1800Z-1900Z, May 4 (SSB) and
1900Z-2000Z, May 4 (FM) and
2000Z-2100Z, May 4 (Dig)
+ NCCC RTTY Sprint 0145Z-0215Z, May 5
+ NCCC Sprint 0230Z-0300Z, May 5

+ Araucaria VHF Contest 0000Z, May 6 to 1600Z, May 7
+ 10-10 Int. Spring Contest, CW 0001Z, May 6 to 2359Z, May 7
+ SBMS 2.3 GHz and Up Contest and Club Challenge 0600 local, May 6 to 2359 local, May 7
+ Microwave Spring Sprint 0800-1400 local, May 6
+ F9AA Cup, PSK 1200Z, May 6 to 1200Z, May 7
+ ARI International DX Contest 1200Z, May 6 to 1159Z, May 7
+ 7th Call Area QSO Party 1300Z, May 6 to 0700Z, May 7
+ Indiana QSO Party 1500Z, May 6 to 0300Z, May 7
+ FISTS Spring Slow Speed Sprint 1700Z-2100Z, May 6
+ Delaware QSO Party 1700Z, May 6 to 2359Z, May 7
+ New England QSO Party 2000Z, May 6 to 0500Z, May 7 and
1300Z-2400Z, May 7
+ Phone Fray 0230Z-0300Z, May 10
+ CWops Mini-CWT Test 1300Z-1400Z, May 10 and
1900Z-2000Z, May 10 and
0300Z-0400Z, May 11

+ RSGB 80m Club Championship, Data 1900Z-2030Z, May 10
+ NAQCC CW Sprint 0030Z-0230Z, Apr 11
+ NCCC RTTY Sprint 0145Z-0215Z, May 12
+ NCCC Sprint 0230Z-0300Z, May 12
+ Jakarta DX Contest 40m 1000Z-2200Z, May 13
+ Portuguese Navy Day Contest 1100Z, May 13 to 2300Z, May 20
+ HPC World Wide DX Contest 1200Z, May 13 to 1159Z, May 14
+ SKCC Weekend Sprintathon 1200Z, May 13 to 2400Z, May 14
+ VOLTA WW RTTY Contest 1200Z, May 13 to 1200Z, May 14
+ CQ-M International DX Contest 1200Z, May 13 to 1159Z, May 14
+ Arkansas QSO Party 1400Z, May 13 to 0200Z, May 14

+ MARAC County Hunters Contest 1400Z-2400Z, May 13 and
1400Z-2400Z, May 14
+ FISTS Spring Unlimited Sprint 1700Z-2100Z, May 13
+ 50 MHz Spring Sprint 2300Z, May 13 to 0300Z, May 14
+ WAB 7 MHz Phone 1000Z-1400Z, May 14
+ UA2 QSO Party 1300Z-1659Z, May 14
+ 4 States QRP Group Second Sunday Sprint 0000Z-0200Z, May 15
+ Phone Fray 0230Z-0300Z, May 17
+ CWops Mini-CWT Test 1300Z-1400Z, May 17 and

1900Z-2000Z, May 17 and
0300Z-0400Z, May 18
+ NCCC RTTY Sprint 0145Z-0215Z, May 19
+ NCCC Sprint 0230Z-0300Z, May 19
+ Slobozhansky Sprint Contest 1800Z-1959Z, May 19 (SSB) and
2000Z-2159Z, May 19 (CW)
+ UN DX Contest 0600Z-2100Z, May 20
+ NZART Sangster Shield Contest 0800Z-1100Z, May 20 and
0800Z-1100Z, May 21
+ Aegean RTTY Contest 1200Z, May 20 to 1200Z, May 21
+ His Maj. King of Spain Contest, CW 1200Z, May 20 to 1200Z, May 21
+ EU PSK DX Contest 1200Z, May 20 to 1200Z, May 21
+ Feld Hell Sprint 1600Z-1759Z, May 20 and
2000Z-2159Z, May 20

+ Baltic Contest 2100Z, May 20 to 0200Z, May 21
+ Run for the Bacon QRP Contest 0100Z-0300Z, May 22
+ SKCC Sprint 0000Z-0200Z, May 24
+ Phone Fray 0230Z-0300Z, May 24
+ CWops Mini-CWT Test 1300Z-1400Z, May 24 and
1900Z-2000Z, May 24 and
0300Z-0400Z, May 25
+ RSGB 80m Club Championship, CW 1900Z-2030Z, May 25
+ NCCC RTTY Sprint 0145Z-0215Z, May 26
+ NCCC Sprint 0230Z-0300Z, May 26
+ CQ WW WPX Contest, CW 0000Z, May 27 to 2359Z, May 28
+ SARL Digital Contest 1300Z-1600Z, May 28
+ QRP ARCI Hootowl Sprint 2000 local - 2400 local, May 28
+ Phone Fray 0230Z-0300Z, May 31
+ CWops Mini-CWT Test 1300Z-1400Z, May 31 and
1900Z-2000Z, May 31 and
0300Z-0400Z, Jun 1

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